Status of New Vaccine Introduction — Worldwide, 2016–2021

Gurpreet Kaur, MD; Rebecca M. Casey, MBBS; Jaymin C. Patel, PhD; Paul Bloem, MBA; Jenny A. Walldorf, MD; Terri B. Hyde, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2023;72(27):746-750. 

In This Article


Data on the status of national introductions of eight WHO-recommended new and underutilized vaccines in 194 countries were obtained from the WHO/UNICEF Immunization database;[3] five of these vaccines are provided during infancy (hepatitis B birth dose [HepB-BD], Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine [Hib], pneumococcal conjugate vaccine [PCV], rubella-containing vaccine [RCV], and rotavirus [RV] vaccine), and three vaccines including a total of five antigens are provided after the first year of life (fourth diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis-containing vaccine [first booster] dose [DTPCV4],* human papillomavirus vaccine [HPV], and measles-containing vaccine second dose [MCV2]).[4] The number of new vaccine introductions globally was calculated for each year during 2016–2021 and compared with average number of annual new vaccine introductions during 2010–2015. Vaccine introduction status is additionally reported according to country income category as defined by the World Bank.[5]

*DTPCV4 refers to the fourth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis–containing vaccine administered at any age. DTPCV4 is one vaccine composed of three antigens.
Country income categories were defined using the 2022 World Bank income classification except for Cook Islands, Niue, and Venezuela. Cook Islands is classified as high-income, and Niue is classified as middle-income based on Central Intelligence Agency classification ( Venezuela is classified as middle-income based on that country's most recent World Bank classification (2019).