WASHINGTON, DC — Use of antiepithelial-derived cytokines was of limited benefit for patients with severe asthma who had low eosinophil counts, as indicated by data from a systematic review that included more than 2000 individuals.
Several types of antiepithelial-derived cytokines (anti-EDCs) have been studied or approved for patients with severe asthma; however, "we understand very little about the effects for those who are not type 2," said Terence Ho, MD, of McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada, in an interview.
The meta-analysis was needed because some clinical trials suggest benefits for patients with type-2 asthma (T2) and patients with non-T2 asthma, but data that compare outcomes are limited, Ho said. If one were to look at just one study, one might think that anti-EDCs would work equally for all patients with severe asthma, he noted.
In a study presented at the American Thoracic Society (ATS) 2023 International Conference, Ho and colleagues identified 12 randomized, controlled trials that involved the use of anti-EDCs for a total of 2391 patients. The study population consisted of patients with T2 and non-T2 severe, uncontrolled asthma. T2 asthma was defined as asthma associated with eosinophil levels of ≥300 cells/uL; non-T2 asthma was defined as asthma associated with eosinophil counts of <300 cells/uL.
The researchers used a random-effects pairwise analysis to evaluate outcomes in the different patient groups. Outcomes of interest were all-cause mortality, asthma exacerbation rate (AER), change in forced expiratory volume per second (FEV1), serious adverse events, change in blood, sputum, and/or submucosal eosinophil counts, fractioned exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) level, and immunoglobulin E (IgE) level.
Overall, anti-EDCs were associated with a reduced AER among patients with T2 asthma (risk ratio [RR], 0.33) with moderate certainty, but certainty was low for patients with non-T2 asthma (RR, 0.59).
Anti-EDCs were significantly associated with improved lung function, as shown on FEV1, for patients with T2 asthma (mean difference with patients with non-T2 asthma: 218.5 mL vs 68.8 mL). Blood eosinophil counts, IgE level, and FeNO level were similarly reduced among both patient groups.
The takeaway message for clinicians is not to presume that anti-EDCs will be equally effective for all patients with severe asthma, especially given the cost associated with these treatments, Ho told Medscape. More research on the use of anti-EDCs for patients with non-T2 asthma is needed, he said.
The study findings were published in The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
The study received no outside funding. Ho and colleagues have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
American Thoracic Society (ATS) 2023 International Conference: Poster 709. Presented May 22, 2023.
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Cite this: Antiepithelial-derived Cytokines Need Targeting for Asthma - Medscape - May 23, 2023.