Nearly 1 in 4 children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for 5 years or more develop diabetic retinopathy, according to a new report.
The global prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes is about 7%, which appears to increase with age.
"In our clinical practice, we have seen an increase in children presenting with type 2 diabetes over the past few years. These patients present with multiple simultaneous comorbidities and complications like hypertension, fatty liver, and other conditions," senior author M. Constantine Samaan, MD, told Medscape Medical News.
"The exact scale of diabetes-related eye disease was not clear, and we decided to quantify it," said Samaan, an associate professor of pediatrics at McMaster University and pediatric endocrinologist at McMaster Children's Hospital in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada.
"What we found was that in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes, diabetic retinopathy is present in 1 in 14 youth. The risk of retinopathy increased significantly 5 years after diagnosis to almost 1 in 4," he noted.
"While we acknowledged that the number of diabetic retinopathy cases was relatively small and there was heterogeneity in studies, we were surprised that retinopathy rates rose so fast in the first few years after diabetes diagnosis," Samaan indicated.
The findings signal that the increase in the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy is emerging decades earlier among children compared with adults with type 2 diabetes, the authors write in their article published online March 17 in JAMA Network Open.
"While the guidelines for eye care in children with type 2 diabetes recommend screening at diagnosis and annually afterward, these recommendations are not followed in almost half of these patients," Samaan said. "There is a need to ensure that patients get screened to try and prevent or delay retinopathy onset and progression."
Analyzing Prevalence Rates
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in patients with type 2 diabetes. Between 21% to 39% of adults have diabetic retinopathy at diagnosis, with rates subsequently increasing, the authors write.
Samaan and colleagues conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the global prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in pediatric patients with type 2 diabetes. They included studies that had a study population of at least 10 participants diagnosed at age 21 and younger, an observational study design, and prevalence data on diabetic retinopathy.
Among the 29 studies included, six were cross-sectional, 13 had a retrospective cohort design, and 10 had a prospective cohort design. Patients were diagnosed between age 6.5 and 21 years, and the diabetes duration ranged from 0 to 15 years after diagnosis.
The overall global prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in 5924 pediatric patients was 7.0%. Prevalence varied by study design, ranging from 1.1% in cross-sectional studies to 6.5% in prospective cohort studies and 11.3% in retrospective cohort studies.
In the nine studies that reported diabetic retinopathy classification based on criteria, the prevalence of minimal-to-moderate nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 11.2%, the prevalence of severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy was 2.6%, the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy was 2.4%, and the prevalence of macular edema was 3.1%.
In the five studies that reported diabetic retinopathy diagnosis using fundoscopy, the prevalence was 0.5%. In the four studies that used 7-field stereoscopic fundus photography, the prevalence was 13.6%.
In the pooled analysis of 27 studies, the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy was 1.8% less than 2.5 years after diabetes diagnosis but more than doubled to 5.1% in years 2.5 to 5 and jumped to 28.8% more than 5 years after diagnosis.
Differences by Sex, Ethnicity
"We were also surprised that there was very limited evidence to understand the sex and race differences in retinopathy risk," said Samaan. "Further research is warranted, considering that more girls develop type 2 diabetes than boys, and the risk of type 2 diabetes is higher in some racial groups."
In addition, older age, longer diabetes duration, and higher hypertension prevalence were associated with diabetic retinopathy prevalence. There were no associations with obesity prevalence or mean age at diabetes diagnosis. However, patients who developed diabetic retinopathy had a higher mean A1c level of 1.4% compared to those without retinopathy.
Samaan and colleagues are continuing to research the comorbidities and complications that children with type 2 diabetes face as well as mechanisms that drive diabetes outcomes among children and adolescents.
For now, the findings highlight the importance of retinopathy screening and personalized diabetes treatment to protect vision, Samaan reiterated.
No funding source for the study was reported. The authors have reported no relevant financial relationships.
JAMA Netw Open. Published online March 17, 2023. Full text
Carolyn Crist is a health and medical journalist who reports on the latest studies for Medscape, MDedge, and WebMD.
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Image 1: McMaster University
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Cite this: Retinopathy 'Emerging Decades Earlier' in Kids With Type 2 Diabetes Than in Adults - Medscape - Mar 23, 2023.