Urine drug testing can be valuable for monitoring patients undergoing treatment with buprenorphine for opioid use disorder (OUD). However, some patients alter their test results by adding buprenorphine directly to their urine sample to imply adherence, a new study shows.
In the study, nearly 2% of all urine drug test specimens analyzed were suggestive of spiking and nearly 8% of patients had at least one specimen that was possibly spiked.
"I anticipate a much-needed increase" in the number of people gaining access to buprenorphine therapy, given elimination of the X waiver, first author Jarratt D. Pytell, MD, with University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, said in a statement.
"New prescribers of buprenorphine will need to learn how to conduct the increasingly complex initiation of treatment and then gauge whether it is successful or not," added Pytell, a general internist and addiction medicine specialist.
"Spiking suggests that treatment is not working — especially in patients continuing illicit drug use. Detecting spiking allows clinicians to adjust or intensify the treatment plan," Pytell told Medscape Medical News.
The study was published online today in JAMA Psychiatry.
A Sign of Elevated Patient Risk
In a cross-sectional study using Millennium Health's proprietary urine drug test (UDT) database, researchers analyzed 507,735 urine specimens from 58,476 OUD patients collected between January 2017 and April 2022.
A total of 9546 (1.9%) specimens from 4550 patients (7.6%) were suggestive of spiking.
UDT specimens suggestive of spiking had 2 times the odds of being positive for other opioids (fentanyl or heroin), compared with opioid negative samples.
UDT specimens obtained from primary care clinics, from patients aged 35-44 years, and from patients living in the South Atlantic region of the United States were also more likely to be suggestive of buprenorphine spiking.
"Our study demonstrated that a norbuprenorphine to buprenorphine ratio of less than 0.02 indicates the possibility of spiking," Pytell told Medscape Medical News.
"Nevertheless, it is important to note that this cutoff is not a definitive standard and further controlled studies are necessary to determine its predictive value for spiking. But recognizing possible spiking is very important since it demonstrates a point of elevated risk for the patient and the treatment approach should be reconsidered," Pytell said.
"At Millennium Health, we have been tracking the enormity of the drug use crisis. This study suggests that spiking is an important patient safety issue, and it is not uncommon," study co-author Eric Dawson, PharmD, VP of Clinical Affairs, Millennium Health, said in a statement.
"Detection of spiking requires definitive drug testing. Immunoassay based, point-of-care tests cannot detect spiking because they are generally incapable of quantitative analysis and differentiating buprenorphine from norbuprenorphine," Dawson said.
"We need to develop best practices specific for this situation where a patient has added buprenorphine to the urine drug test specimen," said Pytell.
"As with all unexpected findings, it is crucial for clinicians to approach this finding in a nonjudgmental manner and work with the patient to understand what might have motivated them to alter their urine specimen," he added.
Pytell said a common reaction for clinicians might be to discontinue treatment. However, this is actually a time to try and engage with the patient.
"Clinicians should work collaboratively with patients to identify potential reasons for spiking and determine what changes may need to be made to better support the patient's recovery," Pytell said.
"This could include more frequent monitoring or referral to a higher level of care. In addition, clinicians should be aware that patients who engage in spiking may be experiencing other challenges that impact their ability to adhere to treatment, such as inadequate housing, mental health issues or financial strain. Addressing these underlying issues may help patients overcome barriers to treatment adherence and reduce the likelihood of future spiking," Pytell said.
This study was supported by Millennium Health. The authors have no relevant disclosures.
JAMA Psychiatry. Published online March 22, 2023. Abstract
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Cite this: Watch for Buprenorphine 'Spiking' in UrineDrug Tests - Medscape - Mar 22, 2023.