Abstract and Introduction
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends a COVID-19 vaccine booster dose for all persons ≥18 years of age. We analyzed data from the National Immunization Survey–Adult COVID Module collected during February 27–March 26, 2022 to assess COVID-19 booster dose vaccination coverage among adults. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to assess factors associated with vaccination. COVID-19 booster dose coverage among fully vaccinated adults increased from 25.7% in November 2021 to 63.4% in March 2022. Coverage was lower among non-Hispanic Black (52.7%), and Hispanic (55.5%) than non-Hispanic White adults (67.7%). Coverage was 67.4% among essential healthcare personnel, 62.2% among adults who had a disability, and 69.9% among adults who had medical conditions. Booster dose coverage was not optimal, and disparities by race/ethnicity and other factors are apparent in coverage uptake. Tailored strategies are needed to educate the public and reduce disparities in COVID-19 vaccination coverage.
A COVID-19 vaccine booster dose is intended to boost the immune system for better, long-lasting protection when the primary vaccine response decreases over time. Studies have shown that a booster increased the immune response in trial participants who completed a Pfizer-BioNTech (https://www.pfizer.com) or Moderna (https://www.modernatx.com) primary series 6 months earlier or who received a Johnson & Johnson/Janssen (https://www.jnj.com) single-dose vaccine 2 months earlier.[1,2]
With an increased immune response, booster doses provide additional protection against both Delta and Omicron variants for clinical COVID-19 emergency department visits and hospitalization even for those persons who have received an initial vaccine series.[1,3] For example, the mRNA vaccine effectiveness (VE) against emergency room visits during the period of Delta predominance was 76%–86% after the second initial dose and 94% after a booster dose; estimates of VE during Omicron variant predominance were 38%–52% after the second initial dose and 82% after a booster dose. VE against hospitalizations during the period of Delta predominance was 81%–90% after the second initial dose and 94% after a booster dose, and estimates of VE for during Omicron variant predominance were 57%–81% after the second initial dose and 90% after a booster dose.
The Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) first recommended booster doses for select populations in September 2021 and on November 29, 2021, recommended that all persons ≥18 years of age should get a booster dose when eligible.[1,2] By March 2022, approximately 84% of American adults were fully vaccinated with the COVID-19 primary vaccine series; primary vaccine series completion rates varied by some social–demographic characteristics. Receiving a COVID-19 booster dose is useful both to prevent COVID-19-related illness and death and slow the spread of COVID-19 in the United States. The objective of this study was to assess COVID-19 booster dose vaccination coverage by demographics and behaviors and experiences toward vaccination among fully vaccinated adults by using data from the National Immunization Survey–Adult COVID Module (NIS-ACM).
Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(1):133-140. © 2023 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)