Medical Student Well-Being During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Yuxi Zhang, MD, and Seth Himelhoch, MD, MPH


January 09, 2023

During the initial stage of the COVID-19 pandemic U.S. medical students were suspended from in-person clinical interaction. This decision was based on specific guidance from the Association of American Medical Colleges and subsequently implemented in medical schools across the United States.1 Our research project addressed students' stress level before and after clinical in-person suspension and assessed medical students perceived COVID-19–related risk level. We were particularly curious to learn about students' emotional struggles as they navigated the initial pedagogical uncertainty associated with the pandemic.

Dr Yuxi Zhang

Our study showed that students had a significantly higher stress level after the clinical suspension of in-person clinical interaction as compared with the time before the suspension of clinical in-person interaction. It is likely that heightened stress was greater than before and the rationale was likely multifactorial in nature.2

Dr Seth Himelhoch

One key stressor U.S. medical students faced was the negative impacts of COVID-19 on medical education. U.S. Medical Licensing Examination exam-taking was severely impacted, and some students needed to reschedule their test dates because of increased restrictions at testing centers. Third-year medical students in particular were worried about how COVID-19 would influence their residency application; for example, in-person residency interviews and away rotations as fourth-year medical students. Another concern was not being able to be involved in clinical work during the direst stage of this public health emergency because of personal protective equipment shortages and attempts to reduce community spread of COVID-19.

Our study also showed that students had a relatively lower perceived risk level when it comes to COVID-19 than health care workers in the 2003 SARS epidemic, which we suspect is mostly attributable to the suspension of clinical in-person interaction. We also found that female gender and self-reported mental illness diagnosis were two risk factors for perceived stress level, consistent with our current literature.

The reality of clinical in-person inaction caused by PPE shortage and limited telehealth options, together with social isolation and uncertainty regarding future education opportunities, appear to have had a detrimental effect on medical students' psychological wellbeing. This did not have to be the case. Some medical students found innovative ways to stay involved.

For example, in 2020 some of Dr. Zhang's classmates helped proctor virtual group therapy sessions held by the local National Alliance on Mental Illness chapter. Medical students at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York were not only able to engage in telehealth but also join other task forces, such as PPE supply, distribution, and coordination, morale promotion, and administrative services.3 Finally, many medical students in New York volunteered in providing child care for frontline doctors to help relieve their burden.4 These actions, if implemented more widely, may have had a protective effect on the stress and well-being of medical students at that time.

While our study focused on the academic side of things, the personal impacts from COVID-19 need to be acknowledged — sickness from COVID-19 and its sequelae, family loss from COVID-19, financial struggle, and racial targeting of Asians to name a few. COVID-19 has influenced many families' livelihood and changed our understanding of ourselves, others, and the world in unprecedented ways.

Fast forward to today — medical students are used to learning and living in a world with an ongoing pandemic, and medical education and residency application process have adapted to this new normal. The once-crippling uncertainty surrounding COVID-19 and disastrous PPE shortages have passed. Yet, COVID-19 continues to be a stressor. In fact, burnout related to "COVID-19 fatigue" has been on the rise and one recent national survey shows one in five physicians intends to leave practice within 2 years.5

Meanwhile, uncertainty continued to persist, as in August 2022 monkeypox was declared a public health emergency in the United States.6 What Dr. Zhang learned as a medical student during the initial months of COVID-19 continues to be relevant: connect with loved ones, understand the changing reality, process the emotions, recognize what is under one's control, have a solution-oriented mindset, and be forgiving and patient with oneself and others.

Dr. Zhang is a second-year psychiatry resident physician at Saint Elizabeth's Hospital/DC DBH, Washington. Dr. Himelhoch serves as professor and chair of the department of psychiatry at the University of Kentucky, Lexington. His research focuses on developing and studying the efficacy of innovative strategies aimed at improving the health and welfare among people with co-occurring psychiatric and substance use disorders.


1. Association of American Medical Colleges. Important Guidance for Medical Students on Clinical Rotations During the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak. 2020 Mar 17.

2. Zhang Y et al. Psychiatry Res. 2022;313:114595. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114595.

3. Bahethi RR et al. Acad Med. 2021 Jun 1;96(6):859-63. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000003863.

4. Krieger P and Goodnough A. Medical Students, Sidelined for Now, Find New Ways to Fight Coronavirus. The New York Times. 2020 Mar 23.

5. Abbasi J. JAMA. 2022 Apr 19;327(15):1435-7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2022.5074.

6. Department of Health & Human Services. Biden-Harris Administration Bolsters Monkeypox Response; HHS Secretary Becerra Declares Public Health Emergency. 2022 Aug 4.

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