The SPSS for Windows software (version 21.0; SPSS Inc, Chicago, Ill, United States) was used to analyze available data from 80 patients (39 cases in the M group and 41 in the S group). Continuous data were tested for normalization purposes using the histogram, Q-Q plot, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests.
Normally distributed data were presented as the mean (standard deviation) and compared using Student's independent t-test. Unevenly distributed data were presented as median (interquartile range) and were compared using the Mann–Whitney U test. We dealt with intraoperative serial measurement data using the area under the curve as advised by Matthews and colleagues. We then compared the groups using the Student's independent t-test.
Categorical data were depicted as numbers (percentage) and compared using the chi-squared test or Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. A two-tailed P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant.
BMC Anesthesiol. 2022;22(393) © 2022 BioMed Central, Ltd.