PHILADELPHIA — For patients with rheumatoid arthritis who are already at increased risk for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), NSAIDs may be safer than opioids, results of a new-user active comparator study suggest.
Among 6,866 patients with RA who started on opioids and 13,698 patients who started on NSAIDs for pain, the use of both weak and strong opioids was associated with a 33% increase in risk for all-cause mortality and a trend toward higher rates of venous thromboembolism (VTE), compared with NSAID use, reported Gulsen Ozen, MD, of the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha.
"Pain in RA is a very complex process, and we know that it's not solely dependent on the disease activity, but there is no evidence that opioids have any benefit in long-term pain management, and it can even cause hyperalgesia. And as we show, it's not safer than NSAIDs," she said in an oral abstract session at the annual meeting of the American College of Rheumatology.
She stressed that patients should be assessed for non-RA causes of pain and should use nonpharmacologic methods when possible.
"If a pharmacological treatment is needed and NSAIDs are contraindicated, the lowest possible dose of weak opioids can be used for a very limited time for acute pain only," she said.
Pain Despite Disease Control
Even when their disease is well controlled, approximately 60% of patients with RA still report pain. NSAIDs are commonly used to treat pain in patients with RA, but they are associated with modest increases in risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), gastrointestinal bleeding, renal injury, and hypertension.
Some providers are leery of NSAIDs and will instead prescribe either regular or intermittent opioids for pain control in their patients.
Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs have only minimal pain-relieving benefits, "and even worse, opioids can delay initiation of DMARDs in RA," Ozen said.
Opioids have been shown to increase oxidative stress, platelet aggregation, and myocardial fibrosis, as well as hypogonadism, weight gain, and CVD risk factors.
There is little evidence, however, on whether opioids are associated with cardiovascular events in patients with RA. This dearth of data prompted Ozen and colleagues to study the relative risks for MACE in patients with RA starting on opioids or NSAIDs for pain.
They used data from FORWARD, a joint Canadian and U.S. databank for rheumatic diseases, to conduct a new-user active comparator cohort study. The cohort included adults with RA without cancer who participated in FORWARD for a minimum of 1 year between 1998 and 2021.
The patients were followed either from drug initiation until 3 months after the end of treatment, defined as either discontinuation or a switch to a different analgesic, end of study follow-up, or the development of a MACE outcome.
The investigators used propensity score matching to compare each opioid initiator with two NSAID initiators. The participants were matched by age, sex, body mass index, smoking, alcohol, RA duration, disease activity, Health Assessment Questionnaire, visual analog scale for pain, joint surgeries, prior CVD and VTE, hypertension, diabetes, rheumatic diseases comorbidity index, osteoporosis/fractures, thyroid, chronic liver, kidney, lung and mental health diseases, hospitalizations, 36-Item Short Form Health Survey scores, and sleep scores.
The two groups were well matched, except for a slightly higher incidence of VTE in opioid initiators, although incidence rates were low in both groups (0.9% vs. 0.6% of NSAID initiators).
Higher Death Rate in Opioid Users
The incidence rate of MACE among opioid initiators was 20.6% versus18.9% among NSAID initiators, a difference that was not statistically significant. There were also no significant differences in incidence rates of the individual components of the MACE composite outcome: myocardial infarction, stroke, heart failure, CVD death, or VTE.
There were, however, significantly more deaths from any cause among patients in the opioid group, with an incidence rate of 13.5% versus 10.8% in the NSAID group.
An analysis of the association of drug type with outcomes, adjusted for propensity score weight and prior VTE showed that patients on opioids had a statistically significant hazard ratio for death from any cause of 1.33 (95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.67).
The increased risk for all-cause mortality occurred both in patients starting on weak opioids (hydrocodone, tramadol, codeine, pentazocine, and propoxyphene) and on strong opioids (hydromorphone, dihydromorphinone, oxymorphone, butorphanol, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, meperidine, and fentanyl).
As noted before, there was a trend toward an increased risk for VTE among opioid initiators, but this was not statistically significant.
The increase in risk was higher among patients on strong versus weak opioids, suggesting a dose-dependent relationship, Ozen said.
A comparison of opioid-associated risk for all-cause mortality vs. NSAIDs according to type (nonselective or selective) showed that most of the increase in risk was relative to selective cycloxygenase-2 inhibitors.
"This is a beautiful piece of analysis on a really difficult question to address because the confounding is really hard to unpick," commented James Galloway, MBBS, deputy head of the center for rheumatic diseases at King's College London and consulting rheumatologist at King's College Hospital, also in London.
"The headline message is that there didn't appear to be a clear signal that NSAIDs were worse, which is what I thought the preexisting view might have been. And so, people may have paradoxically prescribed opioids in favor of NSAIDs in a person with cardiovascular risk," he said in an interview. Galloway attended the oral abstract session but was not involved in the study.
The study was supported by a grant to Ozen from the Rheumatology Research Foundation. Galloway reported having no relevant disclosures.
This article originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.
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Cite this: Opioids Increase Risk for All-Cause Deaths inRA vs. NSAIDs - Medscape - Nov 17, 2022.