Pediatricians should consider screening children suspected of having a concussion for resulting vision problems that are often overlooked, according to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP).
Christina Master, MD, a pediatrician and sports medicine specialist at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, said many doctors don't think of vision problems when examining children who've experienced a head injury. But the issues are common and can significantly affect a child's performance in school and sports, and disrupt daily life.
Master led a team of sports medicine and vision specialists who wrote an AAP policy statement on vision and concussion. She summarized the new recommendations during a plenary session today at the AAP National Conference & Exhibition in Anaheim, California.
Master told Medscape Medical News that the vast majority of the estimated 1.4 million US children and adolescents who have concussions annually are treated in pediatricians' offices.
Up to 40% of young patients experience symptoms such as blurred vision, light sensitivity, and double vision following a concussion, the panel said. In addition, children with vision problems are more likely to have prolonged recoveries and delays in returning to school than children who have concussions but don't have similar eyesight issues.
Concussions affect neurologic pathways of the visual system and disturb basic functions such as the ability of the eyes to change focus from a distant object to a near one.
Master said most pediatricians do not routinely check for vision problems following a concussion, and children themselves may not recognize that they have vision deficits "unless you ask them very specifically."
In addition to asking children about their vision, the policy statement recommends pediatricians conduct a thorough exam to assess ocular alignment, the ability to track a moving object, and maintain focus on an image while moving.
Managing Vision Problems
Pediatricians can guide parents in talking to their child's school about accommodations such as extra time on classroom tasks, creating materials with enlarged fonts, and using preprinted or audio notes, the statement said.
At school, vision deficits can interfere with reading by causing children to skip words, lose their place, become fatigued, or lose interest, according to the statement.
Children can also take breaks from visual stressors such as bright lights and screens, and use prescription glasses temporarily to correct blurred vision, the panel noted.
Although most children will recover from a concussion on their own within 4 weeks, up to one third will have persistent symptoms and may benefit from seeing a specialist who can provide treatment such as rehabilitative exercises. While evidence suggests that referring some children to specialty care within a week of a concussion improves outcomes, the signs of who would benefit are not always clear, according to the panel.
Specialties such as sports medicine, neurology, physiatry, otorhinolaryngology, and occupational therapy may provide care for prolonged symptoms, Master said.
The panel noted that more study is needed on treatment options such as rehabilitation exercises, which have been shown to help with balance and dizziness.
Master said the panel did not recommend that pediatricians provide a home exercise program to treat concussion, as she does in her practice, explaining that "it's not clear that it's necessary for all kids."
One author of the policy statement, Ankoor Shah, MD, PhD, reported an intellectual property relationship with Rebion involving a patent application for a pediatric vision screener. Others, including Master, reported no relevant financial relationships.
Mary Chris Jaklevic is a healthcare journalist in the Midwest.
American Academy of Pediatrics: P3312: "Managing Concussion-Related Vision Problems." Presented October 9, 2022.
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Image 1: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
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Cite this: Pediatricians Urged to Check for Vision Problems After Concussion - Medscape - Oct 09, 2022.