Maternal mortality in the United States has been rising for several decades, but actions taken at the community level, as well as larger public health initiatives, have the potential to slow this trend, according to experts at a webinar sponsored by the National Institute for Health Care Management.
Maternal mortality in the United States increased by 14% from 2018 to 2020, according to data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics.
However, more than 80% of pregnancy-related deaths are preventable, according to 2017-2019 data from the Maternal Mortality Review Committees published online by the CDC. MMRCs include representatives of diverse clinical and nonclinical backgrounds who review the circumstances of pregnancy-related deaths.
In a webinar presented on Sept. 20, the NIHCM enlisted a panel of experts to discuss maternal mortality, the effect of changes to reproductive rights, and potential strategies to improve maternal health outcomes.
Maternal mortality is defined as "death while pregnant or within 42 days of the end of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and site of pregnancy, from any cause related to pregnancy or its management," according to the CDC.
Importantly, mortality rates in the United States are approximately three times higher in Black women compared with White women, said Ndidiamaka Amutah-Onukagha, PhD, MPH, of the Tufts University Center for Black Maternal Health & Reproductive Justice. Amutah-Onukagha addressed some of the potential issues that appear to drive the disparity in care.
The lack of diversity in the health care workforce has a significant effect on patient outcomes, Amutah-Onukagha said. Overall, Black newborns are more than twice as likely as White newborns to die during their first year of life, but this number is cut in half when Black infants are cared for by Black physicians, she emphasized.
Other factors that may affect disparities in maternal health care include limited access to prenatal care, discriminatory hospital protocols, and mistreatment by health care professionals, said Amutah-Onukagha. She cited data showing that maternal mortality rates were higher in rural compared with urban areas. "According to the American Hospital Association, half of rural hospitals have no obstetric care, leaving mothers in maternity care deserts; this exacerbates existing disparities," she said.
In the webinar, Sindhu Srinivas, MD, a maternal-fetal medicine specialist at the University of Pennsylvania, explained how patient, community, and system factors play a role in the disparities in maternal care.
Overall, Black women have to travel further to receive care, which has implications for high-risk pregnancies, and patients on Medicaid have to wait longer for care, and are less likely to be referred, she added. Black women also have higher rates of preexisting conditions compared with other populations that put them in the high-risk category, such as high blood pressure, diabetes, obesity, or being HIV positive, she said.
Other factors contributing to persistent disparities in maternal care include sociodemographics, patient beliefs and knowledge, and psychological issues including stress, said Srinivas. Community factors, such as social networks, safety, and poverty, also play a role, as do clinician factors of implicit bias and communication skills, she said.
Strategies to Reduce Disparity
Srinivas presented several strategies to reduce disparities at various levels. At the policy level, interventions such as establishing a Maternal Mortality Review Committee, establishing a perinatal quality collaborative, and extending Medicaid for a full year postpartum could help improve outcomes, she said. Srinivas also encouraged clinicians to report maternal mortality data stratified by race and ethnicity, and to participate in the Alliance for Innovation on Maternal Health program (AIM), an initiative in partnership with the American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Srinivas also proposed maternal health policies to develop payment models "to sustain and scale innovative solutions, and "preserve access to contraception and abortion care."
For clinicians looking to have an immediate impact, the panelists agreed that working with community health centers can make a significant difference by improving access to maternal care. Consider opportunities for partnership between hospitals and health care delivery centers in the community, said Srinivas.
Also, don't underestimate the value of doulas in the birthing process, Amutah-Onukagha said. She urged clinicians to advocate for doula reimbursement and to take advantage of opportunities for doulas to work with pregnant individuals at the community levels. Data suggest that doulas are associated with increased maternal care visits and with breastfeeding, she noted.
Adam Myers, MD, of the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association, also contributed to the webinar discussion with a key point: Having financial means and commercial coverage is not a buffer against adverse maternal outcomes for racial minorities.
Myers cited the latest Health of America Report, which included data up to April 2021 with surveys of Medicaid members and their experiences. According to the report, rates of severe maternal mortality (SMM) increased by 9% for commercially and Medicaid-insured women between 2018 and 2020.
Among commercially insured women, SMM was 53% higher among Black women than White women; among Medicaid-insured women, Black women had a 73% higher rate of SMM, compared with White women.
In addition, the report showed that significantly more mothers of color were not able to complete the recommended series of prenatal visits, mainly for reasons of scheduling and transportation, which were greater barriers than COVID-19, Myers said.
Based on the data, one specific risk profile rose to the top: "We believe women of color aged 35 or higher with comorbid conditions should be treated as very high risk for SMM," Myers emphasized. He stressed the need to focus on transportation and scheduling barriers and expressed support for partnerships and health care delivery centers in the community to mitigate these issues.
Finally, Srinivas encouraged clinicians to have confidence in their expertise and make themselves heard to help their patients and improve maternal health for all. "Use your voice," said Srinivas, "As physicians we don't think of that as an important aspect of our work, or that we can't articulate, but remember that we are experts, and sharing stories of patients who are impacted is incredibly powerful," she said.
The presenters had no relevant financial conflicts to disclose.
This article originally appeared on MDedge.com, part of the Medscape Professional Network.
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Cite this: Community-Level Actions Could Mitigate Maternal Mortality - Medscape - Sep 22, 2022.