Acute Coronary Syndrome in an 8-year-old Child With Familial Hypercholesterolemia: A Case Report

A Case Report

Nan Wang; Ying Wei; Gang Zhou; Yue Zhang; Jiyang Song

Disclosures

J Med Case Reports. 2022;16(290) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Background: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is the most commonly inherited metabolic disease and has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. Patients with FH usually present with high levels of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, xanthomas and early coronary artery disease. Children with FH are subject to developing early and enhanced atherosclerosis, leading to an increased risk of coronary events. We report here an 8-year-old patient with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) who was diagnosed with homozygous FH (HoFH) due to mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene and subsequently treated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) after filtration plasma. To the best of our knowledge, this patient is the youngest case of HoFH treated with filtration plasma followed by PTCA reported to date.

Case Presentation: An 8-year-old Asian patient was admitted to Gansu Provincial Hospital presenting symptoms of ACS. Laboratory tests showed that the patient's cholesterol and low-density lipid levels were extremely high. An electrocardiogram (ECG) revealed sinus arrhythmia and electric axis deviation to the right, but the ECG was roughly normal. Multiple cardiac function abnormalities were diagnosed on the ECG. Multiple sites of coronary artery stenosis were determined by computed tomography angiography. DNA sequencing of exons showed a C-to-A substitution at nucleotide 126 in exon 2, resulting in a LDLR mutation in the patient and seven other family members. Following combination treatment with lipid-lowering drugs, anti-thrombosis drugs, filtration plasma and PTCA, the patient's symptoms were significantly improved and the patient discharged.

Conclusion: We report the rare case of a patient with ACS attributable to HoFH who was treated with PTCA following filtration plasma. The patient was shown to have clinically diagnosed and molecularly confirmed HoFH that resulted from a mutation in the LDLR gene. Children with HoFH have higher risk of early coronary events and death from myocardial infarction due to premature atherosclerosis than adults. Earlier intervention and treatment will bring great benefits to the long-term survival of pediatric patients.

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