Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in US Adults With Vision Impairment

Isabel Mendez, MS; Minchul Kim, PhD; Elizabeth A. Lundeen, PhD; Fleetwood Loustalot, PhD, FNP; Jing Fang, MD, MS; Jinan Saaddine, MD, MPH


Prev Chronic Dis. 2022;19(7):e43 

In This Article


Nearly half of adults in this study were aged 18 to 44 years (46.3%), and most were non-Hispanic White (63.9%), had more than a high school education (64.7%), were married (60.3%), worked for pay at a job or business (63.0%), had an income-to-poverty ratio of 2 or more (73.3%), and had private health insurance (54.6%) (Table 1). Overall, 12.9% (95% CI, 12.3–13.5) of adults had self-reported VI. Compared with adults without VI, those with VI tended to be older (≥45 years), female, non-Hispanic Black, not married, and not working for pay and to have a high school education or less, an income-to-poverty ratio of <1 or 1 to <2, and public health insurance. Overall, the prevalence of CVD among adults was 14.1% (95% CI, 13.5–14.7) (Table 2). Prevalence of CVD was 26.6% (95% CI, 24.7–28.6) in respondents with VI and 12.2% (95% CI, 11.7–12.8) in those without VI (prevalence ratio [PR] = 2.18 [95% CI, 2.00–2.37]). In unadjusted analyses, respondents with VI had a significantly higher prevalence of CVD and 6 of the 7 CVD risk factors. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, compared with adults without VI, those with VI had a higher prevalence of CVD (aPR = 1.65 [95% CI, 1.51–1.80]) and all 3 CVD risk behaviors: current smoking (aPR = 1.40 [95% CI, 1.27–1.53]), physical inactivity (aPR = 1.14 [95% CI, 1.06–1.22]), and excessive alcohol intake (aPR = 1.29 [95% CI, 1.08–1.53]). Additionally, in adjusted analyses, respondents with VI had a higher prevalence of all 4 self-reported health conditions: obesity (aPR = 1.28 [95% CI, 1.21–1.36]), hypertension (aPR = 1.29 [95% CI, 1.22–1.36]), high cholesterol (aPR = 1.21 [95% CI, 1.14–1.29]), and diabetes (aPR = 1.54 [95% CI, 1.38–1.72]). In models examining effect modification by age group, the aPR was higher for CVD and several CVD risk factors among the younger age groups (18–44 years and 45–64 years) compared with the older age group (≥65 years); however, this effect modification was only significant (P < .05) for 3 models (CVD, hypertension, and diabetes) (Table 3). Overall, compared with adults without VI, those with VI had a higher number of CVD risk factors (Table 4). Among those with VI, more than 61% reported having 2 or more CVD risk factors, whereas 40% of those without VI did.