Current Insights

A Systemic Review of Therapeutic Options for Peanut Allergy

Eimear O'Rourke; Hilary Tang; Andrew Chin; Andrew Long; Sayantani Sindher; R. Sharon Chinthrajah


Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2022;22(3):188-193. 

In This Article


PA is generally considered a lifelong condition, with onset usually occurring in childhood and only approximately 20% of children outgrowing it.[5–8] The prevalence of self-reported PA in US adults is around 1.8–2.9%,[1,9] however, there are numerous factors that influence its distribution in the population, including geographical location, diet, age, race and ethnicity.[10,11] PA is more prevalent in females, non-Hispanic whites, individuals with household earnings between $50,000 and 150,000 and additional health concerns, such as eczema, asthma, and environmental allergies.[9] Females are more likely to develop adult-onset PA compared to males, which is consistent with many previous population-based studies suggesting a female predominance postpuberty with males more prevalent prepuberty.[1,12–14] The gender differences in PA prevalence during puberty suggests hormones may be involved in the development of FA and influence immune response particularly during the menstrual cycle.[15–17] Differences in prevalence of PA is observed within race/ethnicity, whites (non-Hispanic) make up 65.1% of the general US population but only account for 54.7% of the PA cases.[18] In contrast, Asian Americans make up only 3.8% of the general population but account for 6.3% of the PA cases, demonstrating that PA is more likely to occur in some ethnicities than others. There is an increased risk of PA in children of either white or Asian ancestry born in Western countries compared to those born in Asia.[19] One of the reasons for this inconsistency may be due to early exposure to peanut protein (PP) in Asian countries which lowers the risk of developing PA, as well as the different preparation techniques of peanuts; peanuts are mainly boiled in Asian countries compared to Western countries where they are roasted which increases the allergenicity of peanuts.[20–22]