Materials and Methods
We performed a search in PubMed on August 2, 2021, with main search terms "opioid-induced respiratory depression" and "non-opioid respiratory stimulants." We retrieved 2,082 studies, of which 311 were published since August 2016. Based on the abstract and full text of these papers and the references they listed, we included 34 papers in our primary analysis. The search strategy was developed in collaboration with information specialists of the Walaeus Library of Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, The Netherlands) and is available from the authors. The respiratory stimulants are grouped based on their characteristics and mechanism of action: nonopioid controlled substances, hormones, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists, ampakines, serotonin receptor agonists, antioxidants, miscellaneous peptides, drugs acting at the carotid bodies, sequestration techniques, and opioids.
Anesthesiology. 2022;136(4):618-632. © 2022 American Society of Anesthesiologists | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins