Granuloma Annulare: An Updated Review of Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, and Treatment Options

Tejas P. Joshi; Madeleine Duvic


Am J Clin Dermatol. 2022;23(1):37-50. 

In This Article


We performed a literature search using PubMed. As the last review of GA treatment by Wang and Khachemoune[8] had captured articles published until August 2017, we included studies published between September 2017 and 20 August 2021. We used the search term 'granuloma annulare' to obtain 285 results. Eligible studies were reports that described a response (or lack thereof) to a particular therapy. Case studies and case series were included. We excluded commentaries and editorials as well as studies not published in the English language. A total of 36 studies were included in our review. Our study selection process is illustrated in Figure 1.

Figure 1.

Flow diagram outlining the method of study selection. GA granuloma annulare

We assessed the risk of bias in the reviewed studies using the Tool for evaluating the methodological quality of case reports and case series proposed by Murad and colleagues, which evaluates case reports and cases series across four domains: selection, ascertainment, causality, and reporting (Table 1).[9]