Why Diagnosing Inflammatory Breast Cancer Is Hard and How to Overcome the Challenges

A Narrative Review

Huong T. Le-Petross; Wintana Balema; Wendy A. Woodward


Chin Clin Oncol. 2021;10(6):58 

In This Article


References were identified by using PubMed search criteria including IBC breast symptoms, IBC diagnosis, and IBC imaging modalities to augment the authors' knowledge of IBC. Other references were added from manuscripts identified in the PubMed searches and from manuscript reviewers. References were considered relevant if they focused on making the diagnosis of IBC at the onset of symptoms; imaging patients with symptoms at the time of presentation and before diagnosis; or distinguishing IBC from non-IBC among women with symptoms and a known breast malignancy. All included references were reviewed in their entirety by at least one author.