Risk Factors for SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among US Healthcare Personnel, May–December 2020

Nora Chea; Cedric J. Brown; Taniece Eure; Rebecca Alkis Ramirez; Gregory Blazek; Austin R. Penna; Ruoran Li; Christopher A. Czaja; Helen Johnston; Devra Barter; Betsy Feighner Miller; Kathleen Angell; Kristen E. Marshall; Ashley Fell; Sara Lovett; Sarah Lim; Ruth Lynfield; Sarah Shrum Davis; Erin C. Phipps; Marla Sievers; Ghinwa Dumyati; Cathleen Concannon; Kathryn McCullough; Amy Woods; Sandhya Seshadri; Christopher Myers; Rebecca Pierce; Valerie L.S. Ocampo; Judith A. Guzman-Cottrill; Gabriela Escutia; Monika Samper; Nicola D. Thompson; Shelley S. Magill; Cheri T. Grigg

Disclosures

Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2022;28(1):95-103. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

To determine risk factors for coronavirus disease (COVID-19) among US healthcare personnel (HCP), we conducted a case–control analysis. We collected data about activities outside the workplace and COVID-19 patient care activities from HCP with positive severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) test results (cases) and from HCP with negative test results (controls) in healthcare facilities in 5 US states. We used conditional logistic regression to calculate adjusted matched odds ratios and 95% CIs for exposures. Among 345 cases and 622 controls, factors associated with risk were having close contact with persons with COVID-19 outside the workplace, having close contact with COVID-19 patients in the workplace, and assisting COVID-19 patients with activities of daily living. Protecting HCP from COVID-19 may require interventions that reduce their exposures outside the workplace and improve their ability to more safely assist COVID-19 patients with activities of daily living.

Introduction

In the United States, ≈37 million cases of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and >620,000 deaths had been reported as of June 30, 2021.[1] Given the critical role of healthcare personnel (HCP) in mitigating the COVID-19 pandemic, protecting them from severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection has been a focus of national and international response efforts. However, data on COVID-19 patient care activities that increase risk for SARS-CoV-2 infections among US HCP are limited. To describe factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection among US HCP, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) collaborated with Emerging Infections Program (EIP) site staff[2] to conduct a case–control analysis among HCP working in selected healthcare facilities. We assessed associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCP and a variety of potential exposures: having close contact with persons with COVID-19 outside the workplace, having close contact with COVID-19 patients in the workplace, performing COVID-19 patient care activities including aerosol-generating procedures, and using recommended personal protective equipment (PPE) during those activities.

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