Association of Serum Vitamin D with Mortality in Patients with Existing CVD

Pavankumar Kamat


October 18, 2021


  • Approximately 60% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) had vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L).

  • Elevated serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels were independently associated with a lower risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a non-linear and dose-response manner in patients with established CVD.

Why this matters

  • Findings suggest that patients with vitamin D deficiency may benefit more from an increase in serum 25(OH)D levels than those with CVD and serum 25(OH)D levels of ≥50 nmol/L.

Study design

  • This study included 37,079 patients with CVD (age, 40-69 years) from the UK Biobank (2006-2010).

  • The associations of serum 25(OH)D levels with all-cause and cause-specific mortality were evaluated.

  • Funding: None.

Key results

  • Of 37,079 patients with CVD, 21,331 (57.5%) had vitamin D deficiency (i.e., 25[OH]D, <50 nmol/L).

  • During a median follow-up of 11.7 years, 6319 total deaths occurred, including 2161 deaths from CVD, 2230 deaths from cancer, 623 deaths from respiratory diseases and 1305 deaths from other causes.

  • In patients with vitamin D deficiency (serum 25[OH]D, <50 nmol/L), per 10 nmol/L increase in serum 25(OH)D levels was associated with a lower risk of mortality from (adjusted HR [aHR]; 95% CI):

    • all-cause (0.88; 0.85-0.90);

    • CVD (0.91; 0.86-0.95);

    • cancer (0.90; 0.86-0.95);

    • respiratory diseases (0.81; 0.74-0.90); and

    • other causes (0.81; 0.76-0.87).

  • A non-linear inverse association was seen between serum 25(OH)D levels and mortality from all-cause, cancer, respiratory diseases and other causes (Pnon-linearity<.01).

  • A linear inverse association was seen between serum 25(OH)D levels and CVD mortality (Pnon-linearity=.074).


  • Observational design.


Dai L, Liu M, Chen L. Association of Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality Among Adult Patients With Existing Cardiovascular Disease. Front Nutr. 2021;8:740855. doi: 10.3389/fnut.2021.740855. PMID: 34631770  View full text

This clinical summary originally appeared on Univadis, part of the Medscape Professional Network.


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