Personal DNA Testing Increases Pharmacy Students' Confidence and Competence in Pharmacogenomics

Mahfoud Assem, PhD; Ulrich Broeckel, MD; George E. MacKinnon, PhD


Am J Pharm Educ. 2021;85(4):8249 

In This Article


Our study supports the use of a combination of didactic lectures, practice laboratory counseling activities, and student-led group discussions, coupled with student-specific personal pharmacogenomics testing, to improve pharmacy students' learning, interest, confidence, and perceptions in learning pharmacogenomics. An innovative teaching structure that includes undergoing a pharmacogenomics assay and reviewing and sharing their results with classmates will help prepare future pharmacists with the skills, competencies, and confidence to incorporate pharmacogenomics into future pharmacy practice.