Thalidomide and Lenalidomide for Refractory Systemic/Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Treatment

A Narrative Review of Literature for Clinical Practice

Emily Figueiredo Neves Yuki, MD; Clovis A. Silva, MD, PhD; Nadia E. Aikawa, MD, PhD; Ricardo Romiti, MD, PhD; Carlos Otto Heise, MD, PhD; Eloisa Bonfa, MD, PhD; Sandra Gofinet Pasoto, MD, PhD


J Clin Rheumatol. 2021;27(6):248-259. 

In This Article

Mechanisms of Action

Lenalidomide inhibits cell proliferation, improves the T cells and natural killer cells functions, increases the number of natural killer cells, inhibits angiogenesis by blocking migration and adhesion of endothelial cells and microvessel formation, enhances the production of IFN-γ and of anti-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., interleukin 10 [IL-10]), and decreases the production of proinflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) by monocytes.[95]