COVID-19 and Thyroid Diseases: A Bidirectional Impact

Leonidas H. Duntas; Jacqueline Jonklaas


J Endo Soc. 2021;5(8) 

In This Article


References were identified through searches of PubMed and MEDLINE for articles published from Jan 1, 2019 to February 19, 2021 by use of the MeSH terms "hypothyroidism", "hyperthyroidism", "thyroiditis", "thyroid cancer", "thyroid disease", in combination with the terms "coronavirus" and "COVID-19". Articles resulting from these searches and references cited in those articles were reviewed. Relevant articles were also identified through searching authors' personal files. Preference was given to the most recent articles. A formal systematic review and grading of evidence was not undertaken. Greater emphasis was placed on high quality articles; however, given the fast pace at which knowledge regarding this topic is accruing, weight was also given to case reports and case series, due to their hypothesis-generating value.