The Safe Practice of Female Genital Plastic Surgery

Heather J. Furnas, MD; Francisco L. Canales, MD; Rachel A. Pedreira, MD; Carly Comer, MD; Samuel J. Lin, MD, MBA; Paul E. Banwell, BSc (Hons), MBBS, FRCS (Eng), FRCS (Plast)


Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2021;9(7):e3660 

In This Article

The Safe Practice of Female Genital Plastic Surgery

Female genital plastic surgery is growing in popularity. Labiaplasty in particular has increased 600% in less than a decade in the United States, from 2142 procedures in 2011 to12,903 in 2019.[1,2] These numbers are likely an underestimate because they do not account for the procedures that gynecologists perform.[3] This rise, which is global, has been attributed to several reasons, including functional, sexual, and appearance-related concerns; online access to information; the proliferation of photographs on the internet; depilation; negative comments; and cultural influences.[4–40]

Female genital plastic surgery includes labiaplasty, clitoral hood reduction, labia majoraplasty, perineoplasty, vaginoplasty, and monsplasty. Less common procedures, which are beyond the scope of this article, include hymenoplasty, anterior and posterior commissuroplaty, and labia minora reconstruction after iatrogenic amputation and female genital mutilation.[3,41] Nonsurgical procedure modalities, such as energy-based devices, PRP injection, the O-shot, and G-spot augmentation, are also beyond the scope of this article.