The Safe Practice of Female Genital Plastic Surgery

Heather J. Furnas, MD; Francisco L. Canales, MD; Rachel A. Pedreira, MD; Carly Comer, MD; Samuel J. Lin, MD, MBA; Paul E. Banwell, BSc (Hons), MBBS, FRCS (Eng), FRCS (Plast)


Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2021;9(7):e3660 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


The purpose of this article is to guide surgeons in the safe practice of female genital plastic surgery when the number of such cases is steadily increasing. A careful review of salient things to look for in the patient's motivation, medical history, and physical examination can help the surgeon wisely choose best candidates. The anatomy is described, with particular attention given to the variations not generally described in textbooks or articles. Descriptions are included for labiaplasty, including clitoral hood reduction, majoraplasty, monsplasty, and perineoplasty with vaginoplasty. Reduction of anesthetic risks, deep venous thromboses, and pulmonary emboli are discussed, with special consideration for avoidance of nerve injury and compartment syndrome. Postoperative care of a variety of vulvovaginal procedures is discussed. Videos showing anatomic variations and surgical techniques of common female genital procedures with recommendations to reduce the complication rate are included in the article.