A Systematic Review of Neuropsychological and Psychiatric Sequalae of COVID-19

Implications for Treatment

William Michael Vanderlind; Beth B. Rabinovitz; Iris Yi Miao; Lauren E. Oberlin; Christina Bueno-Castellano; Chaya Fridman; Abhishek Jaywant; Dora Kanellopoulos


Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2021;34(4):420-433. 

In This Article


A systematic literature search of articles published in English between December 2019 and February 2021 was conducted according to PRISMA standards using PubMed. Medical Subject Headings and keywords pertaining to cognitive and psychiatric symptoms in community-dwelling adults with COVID-19 were used to identify original research articles. Case reports, studies with a sample size of N < 10, and studies examining acute psychiatric and cognitive consequences of infection, with data exclusively collected during hospitalization, were excluded.

Titles were initially screened by five reviewers. Abstracts were then independently examined by two reviewers, and two additional independent reviewers evaluated full-text articles to verify inclusion eligibility (Figure 1). Differences were reconciled by consensus conference. We extracted sample characteristics, study design, assessment measures, primary outcomes, and study limitations (Table 1).

Figure 1.

Flowchart of study selection.