e-Cigarettes Linked to Wheeze, Shortness of Breath

Jim Kling

May 15, 2021

The use of e-cigarettes is linked to a higher frequency of self-reported wheezing and shortness of breath in adolescents and young adults, according to an online survey. The association was present even after controlling for cigarette and cannabis use.

Previous studies of adolescents and young adults have shown associations between e-cigarette use and wheeze, shortness of breath, and asthma. The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance (YRBS) survey by the CDC and other health agencies, conducted from 2015-2017, found that 63.5% of youth who used e-cigarettes also used some combination of cigarettes and cannabis. Combined use was associated with a 55% to 65% increased odds of self-reported asthma.

The Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, which was published last October, had similar findings, though it did not find an association between e-cigarette use alone and wheezing.

"The findings from the current study highlight that we need to keep asking young people about respiratory symptoms, co-use of other tobacco products, as well as cannabis use. As more products, including cannabis and various e-cigarette devices, enter the market, assessing respiratory health will be important both where adolescents and young adults receive their healthcare and in research," said Alayna Tackett, PhD, in an interview. Tackett presented the study at the American Thoracic Society's virtual international conference. She is an assistant professor of preventive medicine at the University of Southern California Keck School of Medicine, Los Angeles.

"I found [the study] very interesting because it seems to be identifying a physiologic response to these e-cigarettes," said Christopher Pascoe, MD, who was asked to comment. "And they were so young [age 14 to 21 years]. The fact that these symptoms of wheezing and shortness of breath are coming from people who are this young suggests that there may be chronic problems showing up later with continued use of these devices."

Pascoe is an assistant professor of physiology and pathophysiology at the University of Manitoba in Winnipeg, Canada, where he also works with the Children's Hospital Research Institute of Manitoba. His own research examines lung tissue harvested from pneumothorax surgeries in smokers and e-cigarette users to identify markers of inflammation.

He called the research a "good start" at unravelling the impacts of e-cigarettes and smoking, since some people use both products. "The fact that there was still a twofold increase in odds for wheezing, shortness of breath among people who use these e-cigarettes, but weren't using cannabis and weren't using cigarettes. I think it's novel, and it suggests that there is an effect [of e-cigarettes alone]."

The study is based on a self-reported data, which is a significant limitation, especially considering that asthma is often over-reported. "Self-report can be fraught with things, but I think it's an interesting starting point for trying to recruit people who are just e-cigarette users and following them up further," said Pascoe.

The researchers surveyed 2931 individuals aged 14 to 21 years between August 6 and August 30, 2020, with an average age of 18.9 years. Of the respondents, 80% were women and girls, and 75% were white. The high percentage of women and girls was unusual. Tackett provided no explanation for the atypical demographic but noted that the current study used convenience sampling.

The survey asked about use of e-cigarettes, cigarettes, and cannabis in the past 30 days, as well as asthma diagnosis and respiratory symptoms over the same period. The methodology employed survey management company Lucid, which recruited, collected data from, and provided compensation to participants.

A total of 24% of participants reported asthma, 13% reported wheeze, and 20% reported shortness of breath. Among 1414 respondents who reported e-cigarette use in the past 30 days, 15% also said they had used cigarettes, and 37% said they had used cannabis.

After controlling for age, birth sex, and race/ethnicity, compared to self-reported never e-cigarette users, there was an association between past 30-day e-cigarette use and self-reported asthma (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1 - 1.7), wheeze (OR, 3.1; 95% CI, 2.3 - 4.2), and shortness of breath (OR, 2.9; 95% CI, 2.3 - 3.6). After the researchers controlled for past 30-day cigarette cannabis use, the association with asthma was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.87 - 1.41), but the association with wheeze (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.6 - 3.0) and shortness of breath (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.6 - 2.8) remained.

Tackett noted that wheeze and shortness of breath are only two indicators of respiratory health, and more research needs to be done. Her team is conducting follow-up studies using objective measurement tools such as home-based spirometry in adolescents and young adults who exclusively use e-cigarettes and who have never used e-cigarettes.

"We need to better understand the complex relationships between use of these products and whether multiple product use is associated with worse respiratory outcomes," said Tackett.

Pascoe and Tackett have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

American Thoracic Society (ATS) 2021 International Conference: Abstract A3199. Presented May 14, 2021.

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