UPDATED May 14, 2021 // Medications typically used to treat opioid use disorder (OUD) may also be effective for the growing public health problem of kratom addiction, new research shows.
Results of a comprehensive literature review and an expert survey suggest buprenorphine, naltrex
Ahmed, who practices general psychiatry and addiction psychiatry, presented the findings at the virtual American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2021 Annual Meeting.
Emerging Public Health Problem
Kratom can be ingested in pill or capsule form or as an extract. Its leaves can be chewed or dried and powdered to make a tea. It can also be incorporated into topical creams, balms, or tinctures.
Products containing the substance are "readily available and legal for sale in many states and cities in the US," said Ahmed, adding that it can be purchased online or at local smoke shops and is increasingly used by individuals to self-treat a variety of conditions including pain, anxiety, and mood conditions, and as an opioid substitute.
As reported by Medscape Medical News, a 2018 analysis conducted by the US Food and Drug Administration showed kratom is, in fact, an opioid, a finding that garnered significant push-back from the American Kratom Association.
Kratom addiction, said Ahmed, is an "emerging public health problem," adding that in recent years the number of calls to poison control centers across the country has increased 52-fold — from one per month to two per day. He believes misinformation through social media has helped fuel its use.
Kratom use, the investigators note, can lead to muscle pain, weight loss, insomnia, hallucinations and, in some cases (particularly when combined with synthetic opioids or benzodiazepines), it can lead to respiratory depression, seizures, coma, and death.
In addition, the investigators note that to date, there are no guidelines on its management.
To investigate, the researchers conducted a systematic literature search for cases pertaining to maintenance treatment for kratom dependence. They also tapped into case reports and scientific posters from reliable online sources and conference proceedings. In addition, they conducted a survey of members from the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM).
The researchers found 14 reports of long-term management of kratom addiction, half of which did not involve an OUD. It's important to exclude OUDs to avoid possible confounding.
In most cases, buprenorphine was used, but in a few cases naltrexone or methadone were prescribed. All cases had a favorable outcome. Ahmed noted that buprenorphine maintenance doses appear to be lower than those required to effectively treat OUD.
With a response rate of 11.5% (82 respondents) the ASAM survey results showed 82.6% of respondents (n = 57) had experience managing KUD, including 27.5% (n = 19) who had kratom addiction only. Of these, 89.5% (n = 17-19), used buprenorphine to manage KUD and of these 6, combined it with talk therapy.
Ahmed cautioned that the included cases varied significantly in terms of relevant data, including kratom dose and route of administration, toxicology screening used to monitor abstinence, and duration of maintenance follow-up.
Despite these limitations, the review and survey underscore the importance of including moderate to severe kratom dependence as an indication for current OUD medications, the researchers note.
Including kratom addiction as an indication for these medications is important, especially for patients who are heavily addicted, to meet DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for moderate or severe SUD, they add.
In addition, the researchers recommend that clinicians consider referring patients with moderate to severe kratom dependence for counseling or enrollment in 12-step addiction treatment programs.
A Separate Diagnosis?
Ahmed said he would like to see kratom dependence included in the DSM-5 as a separate entity because it is a botanical with properties similar to, but different from, traditional opioids.
"This will not only help to better inform clinicians about a diagnostic criteria encompassing problematic use and facilitate screening, but it will also pave the way for treatments to be explored for this diagnosable condition," he said. Ahmed pointed to a review published in the Wisconsin Medical Journal earlier this year that explored potential treatments for kratom dependence.
Commenting on the study for Medscape Medical News, Petros Levounis, MD, professor and chair, Department of Psychiatry, and associate dean for professional development, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, said the authors "have done a great job reviewing the literature and asking experts" about kratom addiction treatment.
"The punchline of their study is that kratom behaves very much like an opioid and is treated like an opioid."
Levounis noted that kratom dependence is so new that experts don't know much about it. However, he added, emerging evidence suggests that kratom "should be considered an opioid more than anything else," but added he does not believe it warrants its own diagnosis.
He noted that individual opioids don't have their own diagnostic category and that opioid use disorder is an umbrella term that covers all of these drugs.
Editor's note: This article has been updated for clarity.
Ahmed and Levounis have disclosed no relevant financial relationships.
American Psychiatric Association (APA) 2021 Annual Meeting: Poster #5284. Presented May 2, 2021.
Medscape Medical News © 2021
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Cite this: Opioid Addiction Meds May Curb Growing Problem of Kratom Dependence - Medscape - May 11, 2021.