Neurologic Aspects of Coronavirus Disease of 2019 Infection

Catherine E. Hassett; Jennifer A. Frontera

Disclosures

Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2021;34(3):217-227. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Purpose of Review: Central and peripheral nervous system manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been frequently reported and may cause significant morbidity and mortality. This review details the latest evidence on the neuropathogenesis and neurologic complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection.

Recent Findings: Commonly reported neurologic complications include toxic-metabolic encephalopathy, acute cerebrovascular disorders, seizures, and anoxic-brain injury. These complications represent secondary injury due to COVID-19 related hypoxia, sepsis, hypercoagulability, or hyperinflammation. Postinfectious complications, such as encephalitis, postinfectious demyelination, and Guillain-Barre[Combining Acute Accent] syndrome have been reported, but are rare. Recent reports of persistent neurocognitive symptoms highlight the possibility of lasting impairment.

Summary: Although some neurologic complications should be treated with standard practices, further investigations are still needed to determine the optimal treatment of COVID-related neurologic complications, such as ischemic stroke. Entering into the next phase of the pandemic, investigations into the long-term neurologic and cognitive impacts of SARS-CoV-2 infection will be needed. Clinicians must have a high clinical suspicion for both acute and chronic neurologic complications among COVID-19 patients.

Introduction

In December 2019, a cluster of pneumonias of unknown etiology occurred in Wuhan, China leading to the discovery of a novel beta-coronaviruses.[1] The Coronaviridae family contains several human-susceptible viruses including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle Eastern respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV).[2] The novel coronavirus, known as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has rapidly spread throughout the world causing significant morbidity and mortality.[1] While mostly contributing to lung and heart injury, there is substantial evidence for SARS-CoV-2 related neurologic complications through both direct and indirect mechanisms. We aim to provide a review of the acute neurologic manifestations of COVID-19 (Table 1).

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