Young Adult Males' Perspectives of Male Hormonal Contraception

Megan R. Sax, MD; Emily G. Hurley, MD; Rocco A. Rossi, MD, MA; Suruchi Thakore, MD; Abhinav Hasija, PhD; Julie Sroga-Rios, MD


South Med J. 2021;114(2):73-76. 

In This Article


A 24-multiple choice question survey (Supplemental Digital Content Figure 1, inquiring about participants' interest and concerns in using MHC was approved by the institutional review board of the University of Cincinnati (UC) and Cincinnati Health Department (CHD). The survey was dispersed on paper to patients at CHD clinics and online to postgraduate students and trainees at UC. The paper surveys were completed by patients in solitary before completion of clinic appointments and placed in a sealed envelope. Online surveys were completed via the secure Web application Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) from January 2018 through April 2018.

Inclusion criteria were men 18 to 35 years of age who could read English and who use, plan to use, or have used contraception for pregnancy prevention. Men outside the age range 18 to 35 years old and all women were excluded from participation. Any surveys completed by men who do not require contraception for pregnancy prevention, such as men who only have sex with men, transgender men, and men who have undergone a vasectomy, were excluded from the survey result analysis. The survey questions were directed around prior contraceptive practices of participants and their partners, demographics, relationship and parental status, employment and educational status, willingness to use MHC, preferred method of MHC (pill, injectable, or transdermal gel), and potential reasoning behind the apprehension toward using MHC.

The participating UC postgraduate programs included students in the UC Graduate School, College of Medicine, College of Law, College of Business, College of Pharmacy, College of Nursing, and UC Medical Center physician residency programs, including Internal Medicine, General Surgery, Orthopedic Surgery, Radiology, Urology, Oromaxillofacial Surgery, Radiation Oncology, and Podiatry programs. CHD clinics included the Ambrose Clement, Elm Street, Price Hill, Northside, Millvale, and Braxton Cann Clinic locations.

According to the 2010 US Census Bureau estimate, there are approximately 34,000,000 men aged 18 to 35 years old.[10] Although it cannot be assumed that all of these men are sexually active or trying to avoid partner pregnancy, this is a reasonable population size with which to calculate the margin of error. Based on this population size, a 95% confidence interval, and a margin of error ranging from 4% to 8%, goal recruitment of survey participants was 150 males.

Results were reported as frequencies of each group (UC and CHD) and χ 2 analyses were performed to detect the differences between these two populations. Statistical differences between groups willing to use MHC versus those unwilling and covariates associated with those groups were compared. Opinions regarding different formulations of contraception also were analyzed. Correlations were calculated using the Pearson product moment correlation. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.