The Risk of Birth Defects With Conception by ART

Barbara Luke; Morton B. Brown; Ethan Wantman; Nina E. Forestieri; Marilyn L. Browne; Sarah C. Fisher; Mahsa M. Yazdy; Mary K. Ethen; Mark A. Canfield; Stephanie Watkins; Hazel B. Nichols; Leslie V. Farland; Sergio Oehninger; Kevin J. Doody; Michael L. Eisenberg; Valerie L. Baker


Hum Reprod. 2021;36(1):116-129. 

In This Article


The use of ART is associated with increased risks of a major nonchromosomal birth defect, cardiovascular defect, and any defect in singleton children, and chromosomal defects in twins; the use of ICSI increases this risk further, highest with a male factor diagnosis. The relative contribution of ART treatment parameters versus the biology of the couple to this increased risk remains unclear.