Ex Vivo Confocal Microscopy: Revolution in Fast Pathology in Dermatology

J. Malvehy; J. Pérez-Anker; A. Toll; R. Pigem; A. Garcia; L.L. Alos; S. Puig


The British Journal of Dermatology. 2020;183(6):1011-1025. 

In This Article

Other Ex Vivo Tissue Imaging Modalities

The rapid progress in the field of computer science and instrumentation technology in biophotonics has enabled the development of several optical imaging platforms in addition to ex vivo CM. These include optical coherence tomography, full-field optical coherence tomography, structured illumination microscopy, light sheet microscopy, stimulated Raman spectroscopy, nonlinear microscopy, microscopy using ultraviolet surface excitation and photoacoustic microscopy.[73–75]

The different modalities of ex vivo tissue imaging technologies vary considerably in their optical principles, and most of them have only been tested in a limited number of tissues without clinical validation. These techniques are compared in Table 8. They have different capabilities regarding the need for extrinsic stain, whether they use intrinsic labelling of the tissue, cellular resolution, and capability to produce images similar to those with conventional H&E stain. Finally, only a few of them are commercially available at the time of this review.