Electrocardiographic Imaging for Cardiac Arrhythmias and Resynchronization Therapy

Helder Pereira; Steven Niederer; Christopher A. Rinaldi


Europace. 2020;22(10):1447-1462. 

In This Article

Search Methodology

A systematic search through Medline via PubMed was performed through 19 January 2020, using various combinations of the following terms:

'Arrhythmias, Cardiac'[MeSH]; 'Arrhythmia, Sinus'[MeSH]; 'Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy'[MeSH]; 'Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Devices'[MeSH]; 'Body Surface Potential Mapping'[MeSH]; 'Electrocardiographic Mapping'[All fields]; 'Body Surface Electrocardiographic Mapping'[All fields]; 'Electrocardiographic Imaging'[All fields]; 'ECGi'[All fields].

The database search was performed using both American and British spellings. Throughout the process, the search was limited to full-text human studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the English language only. The article type was limited to 'Clinical Study', 'Case Study', 'Case Report', 'Clinical Trial', 'Controlled Clinical Trial', and 'Randomized Controlled Trial'. No restrictions regarding the date of publication or sex or age of the participants were applied. Review articles, animal studies, in vitro or in silico experiments and simulations as well as studies focusing on other broader techniques were excluded from the review. Our initial intention was to develop a meta-analysis; regrettably it was soon evident that the identified studies used heterogeneous methodologies, particularly with regard to patient inclusion criteria, outcome assessment and comparison group. The primary focus was then changed to find and discuss studies that evaluated the application of ECGi in the context of patients with arrhythmia. For this purpose, we selected papers through manual screening of full texts that contained at least two of three key concepts: (i) arrhythmia, (ii) CRT, and (iii) ECGi.

In addition, all the references of the identified studies were screened using the same criteria to find further relevant publications that might have been missed during the initial search.

The entire searching and screening processes were carried out by two independent specialists and decisions were made based on consensus. As a result, 42 articles were included for the final review, stages of selection are identified through the PRISMA diagram[9] (Figure 1).

Figure 1.

PRISMA diagram illustrating experienced stages of selection according to search and eligibility methodology.