Although medical education is constantly evolving, unique and rapid developments in recent years have sparked controversy. The next generation of physicians is learning much differently from how established doctors once did. Training has shifted from an acute focus on disease to a wider approach that considers patients within the larger context of their community and society. Although many, like myself, see this as progress, others have expressed doubts about this and many other changes.
Amid the madness that is the year 2020, I'm grateful to have a moment to reflect on this subject. Five years ago, in celebration of Medscape's 20th anniversary, I spoke with various leaders in medical education to learn how med ed had evolved since they were in school. Since then, I've gone from student to faculty. This year, for Medscape's 25th anniversary, I reached out to current medical trainees to reflect on how much things have changed in such a short time.
From adjustments forced on us by COVID-19 to trends that predated the pandemic — including an increased emphasis on social justice and a decreased emphasis on other material — becoming a doctor no longer looks like it did just a half-decade ago.
Social Justice Is Now in the Curricula
More than ever, medical training has shifted toward humanism, population health, and social justice. Students are now being shown not only how to treat the patient in front of them but how to "treat" the larger communities they serve. Research skills around social drivers of health, such as structural racism, are increasingly becoming status quo.
In reflecting on her current experience, Emily Kahoud, a third-year medical student at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, told me about a course she took that was devoted to health equity. She applauded how her professors have incorporated this education into their courses. "It's so nice and refreshing to be in a community that appreciates that."
I too have seen this change firsthand. In addition to caring for patients and teaching at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill School of Medicine, I work with a team that develops curricula around social justice. We strive to integrate this material into existing courses and rotations. I believe that this is not only the right thing to teach trainees in order to help their future patients, but that it also reduces harm that many students experience. The "hidden curriculum" of medical school has long marginalized anyone who isn't white and/or male.
Children, women, and the elderly were often referred to as "special populations" during my training. Even now, content about social and structural drivers of health is still most often relegated to separate courses rather than integrated into existing material. I hope to help improve this at my institution and that others are doing the same elsewhere.
If the current students I spoke with are any indication, further integration will be a welcomed change. Travis Benson, a third-year medical student at Harvard Medical School, appreciates where medical training is headed. Specifically, he is interested in inequities in the care of transgender patients. He says he has loved what his school has done with education on issues not previously considered part of med ed. "In the first week of school, we go on tours and spend time in community health centers and learn about the 'Family Van,' a mobile healthcare clinic that offers free care. I even had an opportunity to have a longitudinal clinic experience at a jail."
While some critics argue that this learning goes too far, others argue that it has not gone far enough fast enough. In general, I consider the progress made in this area since my time in med school to be a very good thing. Medical students are now being taught to think about the science of medicine in the context of the larger human condition.
More Technology, Less Preclinical Time and Cost
Beyond evolution in curricular content, technical and logistical changes have dramatically reshaped med ed. Since I started my training in 2012, most medical schools now no longer formally require students to attend lectures. Instead, they make them available online for students to view on demand. This undoubtedly makes schedules more flexible, allows students to learn at their own pace, and helps accommodate students with different needs.
Another big change: Preclinical years may now be as short as 1.5 years or less. This is a big draw for some students. Most choose to go to medical school to take care of patients. Shortening the preclinical years means students have more time immersed in patient care and less time dealing with medical minutiae.
That also means that they can spend more time thinking about professional development. Ramie Fathy, a fourth-year student, told me, "I came to Penn [University of Pennsylvania] because of the shortened preclinical curriculum. That allowed more time on the back end to explore different specialties." Although some established doctors worry about what scientific details may be left out, providing more hands-on experience sure seems like a good thing to me. Learning from textbooks can only take you so far in this profession.
Another, and more expected, development is the use of ever-advancing technology. Some schools now offer 3D virtual modeling for the study of anatomy, as well as a myriad of electronic visual aids for subjects like pathology and microbiology. Adapting to technological changes can be challenging, however, especially because more nontraditional students are being admitted to medical school each year.
Kahoud is one such nontraditional — older — student. She had some concerns about reliance on newer resources going in. "It [medical school] has become increasingly dependent on technology, even before COVID," she said. "When you are not well versed in these tools it can definitely be a struggle."
Thanks to the pandemic, remote learning is now the name of the game for many. As a result, instructors have had to amend their teaching styles to suit distance education, various untested applications and programs have been integrated into the curriculum, and students and administrators alike have had to find alternative ways to build a sense of community.
Is this a glimpse at the future for med ed? And if so, what may be lost or gained from this transition? Tino Delamerced, a third-year student at the Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University, shared a likely very widely held hope: "If the preclinical years can be totally remote permanently, then can tuition be cheaper?"
Med ed debt keeps growing and remains a huge deterrent for potential students, especially those who are the first in their family to pursue medicine, come from a disadvantaged background, or have other people for whom they are financially responsible. Is it possible that the restrictions of COVID-19 could finally lead to cost cutting?
A bigger solution — free medical school — predated the pandemic. Institutions such as New York University have completely eliminated tuition, whereas others such as the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai (my alma mater) have limited the amount of debt with which a student graduates. You can imagine my frustration that the debt limit policy was enacted after I graduated…
Still, as optimistic as some have been at this movement that developed in the past 5 years, many think this specific evolution is little more than a "pipe dream."
Current Students Score Big With USMLE Change
Beyond med school cost, another universally despised part of medical training that has seen a dramatic change is the licensing examination. My dedicated study period for the United States Medical Licensing Examination (USMLE) Step 1 was my worst time of medical school. Well, it was second to holding a retractor in the operating room for hours at a time.
Like everyone, I suspected that Step 1 would not be an accurate indicator of my ability to actually care for patients. As a practicing physician, I can now tell you for sure that this is the case. How lucky for the next generation, then, that the test is going to a pass/fail grading system.
Step 1 has always been important, as residency programs rely on the score to weed out applicants. Even if that screening emphasis simply gets shifted to scores on other examinations, this change still feels like progress. As Fathy told me, "There will likely be more emphasis on USMLE Step 2. But I think, based on practice questions I've done, that is more relevant to clinical abilities." From my new vantage point, I can confirm that.
Not everyone is excited, though. Delamerced told me that he fears that the pass/fail Step 1 score may disparately affect students outside of allopathic medical schools. He said that the new scoring system "does not allow students to distinguish themselves via a standardized test score. That may hurt IMGs or DO students."
Even then, Delamerced conceded that the change has some clear benefits. "For med students' mental health, it's probably a good thing." From a population-based perspective, a medical student's mental health often declines throughout school. Standardized exams are not the only cause, but we all know that it is a big contributor. The Step 1 switch can only help with that.
Finish Faster or Learn More?
In addition to evolution in the content and methods used to teach and assess current med students, the duration of med ed has also changed. Today's students can choose to complete medical school in less than 4 years.
At the school where I work, the Fully Integrated Readiness for Service Training (FIRST) program allows certain students to complete their education in just 3 years. This program is for students who already know early on that they want to pursue a specialty included on our curated list. The goal of the program is to ultimately train physicians in family medicine, psychiatry, pediatrics, or general surgery in order to provide crucial care to those who need it most in our state.
Other medical schools offer accelerated MD programs for students based on various admissions criteria and specialty interest. The benefit of these programs is that shortening training time cuts down on debt for students.
Accelerated MD programs also aim to quickly increase the number of practicing physicians. This is especially important for primary care, which expects to see a growing gap in the years to come. That aim has come under some criticism, as some believe that the 4-year program was the standard for a reason. But when I reflect on it, I often wonder whether my fourth year was really worth $60,000. I spent a lot of that year traveling for residency interviews and watching Netflix between clinic electives.
Instead of finishing medical school faster, some students now have an opportunity to integrate additional training and education. Benson told me that, at Harvard, many students take a year off to pursue other opportunities. He said, "About 40% of students end up taking a fifth year to do either a master's degree, global health, or research." Benson said the additional learning opportunities are broad. "Some classmates even go to other schools altogether to get additional education." Widened areas of learning are likely to produce better doctors, in my opinion.
This chance to look back on medical education has shown me that the ways in which it has changed exponentially in just the past few years are largely positive. Although COVID-19 has been an unwanted bane, it has also forced schools to integrate new technology and has placed an even brighter spotlight on health inequities and other areas where education further improved. I hope that when I look back on med ed in another 5 years, it has grown even more flexible and nimble in meeting the ever-changing needs of students and patients alike.
Alexa Mieses Malchuk, MD, MPH, was born and raised in Queens, New York. Social justice is what drew her to family medicine. As an academic physician at the University of North Carolina–Chapel Hill, she practices inpatient and outpatient medicine and serves as a medical educator for students and residents.
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Cite this: Is Med Ed Changing for Better or Worse? - Medscape - Oct 20, 2020.