Nonaesthetic Applications for Botulinum Toxin in Plastic Surgery

Matthew D. Freeman, M.D.; Ilana G. Margulies, M.D., M.S.; Paymon Sanati-Mehrizy, M.D.; Nikki Burish, M.D.; Peter J. Taub, M.D., M.S.

Disclosures

Plast Reconstr Surg. 2020;146(1):157-170. 

In This Article

Conclusions

The indications for botulinum toxin have evolved enormously since 1989. With research continuously exploring toxin subtypes and mechanisms of action, we may observe further increases in the indications for botulinum toxin. The toxin is a powerful tool, and plastic surgeons should be aware of the other indications for its use outside of improving facial aesthetics.

Comments

3090D553-9492-4563-8681-AD288FA52ACE

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