Serum and Saliva Concentrations of Biochemical Parameters in Men With Prostate Cancer and Benign Prostate Hyperplasia

Hyder Farahani, PhD; Mona Alaee, MSc; Jamal Amri, MSc; Mahmoud-Reza Baghinia, MD; Mohammad Rafiee, PhD

Disclosures

Lab Med. 2020;51(3):243-251. 

In This Article

Results

Demographic Information

The demographic characteristics of the study groups are summarized in Table 1. The mean (SEM) age of the patients with PC (50.95 [2.76]) was not significantly different from that of the subjects in the BPH group (50.45 [2.61]). Also, both groups were well matched, with no significant difference among them (P> .05) in terms of their body mass index (BMI), marital status, tobacco usage, and alcohol usage. Based on the information obtained, 45% of the BPH group had a certain amount of higher education: 35% of the PC group and 20% of the BPH group had a Bachelor's degree or some Bachelor's-level education; in contrast, 65% of the PC group and 35% of the BPH group had a primary-school degree or some primary education.

PSA, B2M, MT, CK-BB, Zinc, Urea, and Creatinine Concentrations in Saliva and Serum

The results of our research into these concentrations are summarized in Table 2. The mean serum PSA (P <.001), B2M (P = .02), CK-BB (P = .03), zinc (P = .01), creatinine (P = .005), and urea (P = .01) concentrations were significantly higher in the PC group than in the BPH group. However, serum MT (P = .009) concentrations were significantly lower in patients with PC, compared with the BPH group. Further, the mean salivary PSA (P <.001), B2M (P = .02), CK-BB (P = .01), zinc (P = .01), creatinine (P = .004) and urea (P = .01) concentrations were significantly higher in the PC group than in the BPH group. But salivary MT (P = .04) concentrations were significantly lower in the patients with PC than in the BPH group. We note that salivary concentrations of this parameter were less than serum concentrations in both groups.

Correlation between Salivary and Serum PSA, B2M, CK-BB, MT, Zinc, Creatinine, and Urea Concentrations in the PC and BPH Groups

The Spearman correlation coefficients showed a significant positive correlation between the serum and salivary PSA, B2M, CK-BB, MT, zinc, creatinine, and urea concentrations in both groups (P <.05). See Table 3 for exact values.

ROC Curve Analysis Results

We performed ROC curve analysis to assess the diagnostic potential of salivary PSA, B2M, CK-BB, MT, zinc, creatinine, and urea, compared with serum PSA, B2M, CK-BB, MT, zinc, creatinine, and urea (ie, to correctly separate the tested group into PC and BPH subgroups). The total AUC with 95% confidence interval (CI) and sensitivity and specificity analysis for salivary PSA, B2M, CK-BB, MT, zinc, creatinine, and urea at the optimal cutoff values are shown in Table 4 and Table 5. We note that the cutoff values were assessed based on the best tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity.

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