Preliminary Incidence and Trends of Infections With Pathogens Transmitted Commonly Through Food

Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network, 10 U.S. Sites, 2016-2019

Danielle M. Tack, DVM; Logan Ray, MPH; Patricia M. Griffin, MD; Paul R. Cieslak, MD; John Dunn, DVM; Tamara Rissman, MPH; Rachel Jervis, MPH; Sarah Lathrop, PhD; Alison Muse, MPH; Monique Duwell, MD; Kirk Smith, DVM; Melissa Tobin-D'Angelo, MD; Duc J. Vugia, MD; Joanna Zablotsky Kufel, PhD; Beverly J. Wolpert, PhD; Robert Tauxe, MD; Daniel C. Payne, PhD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020;69(17):509-514. 

In This Article

Cases of Infection, Incidence, and Trends

During 2019, FoodNet identified 25,866 cases of infection, 6,164 hospitalizations, and 122 deaths (Table 1). The overall incidence per 100,000 population was highest for Campylobacter (19.5), followed by Salmonella (17.1), STEC (6.3), Shigella (4.8), Cyclospora (1.5), Yersinia (1.4), Vibrio (0.9), and Listeria (0.3). The respective incidences were slightly lower for domestically acquired infections (Table 2). Eighty-six percent of infections were acquired domestically, ranging from 77% for Shigella to 96% for Listeria.

Compared with 2016–2018, the incidence in 2019 increased significantly for Cyclospora (1,209%), Yersinia (153%), Vibrio (79%), STEC (34%), and Campylobacter (13%) (Table 1). The number of bacterial infections diagnosed using a CIDT increased 32%, ranging from 18% for STEC to 253% for Listeria. The percentage of infections diagnosed only by CIDT, including specimens that were culture-negative and those not tested by culture, was highest for Yersinia (57%), followed by STEC (45%), Campylobacter (42%), Vibrio (41%), Shigella (40%), Salmonella (13%), and Listeria (1%). Overall, culture was attempted on 75% of positive bacterial CIDT results, ranging from 63% for Campylobacter to 100% for Listeria (Figure).

Figure.

Number of infections diagnosed by culture or culture-independent diagnostic tests (CIDTs), by pathogen, year, and culture status — 10 U.S. sites, Foodborne Diseases Active Surveillance Network,* 2016–2019
Abbreviation: STEC = Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.
*Data collected from laboratories in Connecticut, Georgia, Maryland, Minnesota, New Mexico, Oregon, Tennessee, and selected counties in California, Colorado, and New York.
Data for 2019 are preliminary.

Among 6,656 (90%) fully serotyped Salmonella isolates, the six most common serotypes were Enteritidis (2.6 per 100,000 population); Newport (1.4); Typhimurium (1.3); Javiana (1.1); I 4,[5],12:i:- (0.7); and Infantis (0.5). Compared with 2016–2018, incidence was significantly lower for Typhimurium (13% decrease; 95% CI = 1–24) and I 4,[5],12:i:- (28% decrease; 95% CI = 8–44); Infantis was significantly higher (69% increase; 95% CI = 31–118).

Among 1,725 STEC isolates, most (397; 23%) were O157, followed by O103 (305; 18%), O26 (254; 15%), and O111 (175; 10%). The incidence of STEC O157 infections (0.8 per 100,000) decreased by 20% (95% CI = 3–34), compared with that during 2016–2018; the incidence of non-O157 STEC infections (2.7) increased by 35% (95% CI = 18–56).

FoodNet identified 62 cases of post-diarrheal HUS in children (0.6 cases per 100,000) during 2018; 31 (50%) cases occurred in children aged <5 years (1.1 cases per 100,000). These rates were not significantly different from those during 2015–2017.

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