Venetoclax in Combination With Carfilzomib and Dexamethasone in Relapsed/Refractory Multiple Myeloma Harboring t(11,14)(q13;q32)

Two Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

Khadega A. Abuelgasim; Noha Alherz; Ayman Alhejazi; Moussab Damlaj

Disclosures

J Med Case Reports. 2020;14(54) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Background: Multiple myeloma has witnessed significant advances due to the approval of many novel agents. However, in spite of all these new developments, multiple myeloma remains an incurable disease with inevitable relapse in the majority of patients. Venetoclax is a selective antiapoptotic protein B-cell lymphoma 2 inhibitor that induces cell death in multiple myeloma cells, particularly in those harboring t(11,14)(q13;q32). We report two cases of patients with multiple myeloma with t(11,14)(q13;q32) who were treated with venetoclax/carfilzomib/dexamethasone with rapid initial response; however, the response was short-lived.

Cases presentation: Patient 1 was a 50-year-old Saudi man with International Staging System stage III kappa light chain multiple myeloma with normal karyotype diagnosed in May 2013. He received bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone treatment and underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Three years later, he presented with disease progression and received multiple lines of chemotherapy, including carfilzomib/lenalidomide/dexamethasone. Venetoclax/carfilzomib/dexamethasone was started after acquiring t(11,14)(q13;q32) 5 years into his disease course. He achieved complete remission, with disease progression after cycle 6. Patient 2 was a 48-year-old Saudi man with International Staging System stage III immunoglobulin G kappa multiple myeloma with t(11,14)(q13;q32) diagnosed in May 2017. He received bortezomib/thalidomide/dexamethasone treatment and underwent autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Eighteen months later, he had disease progression, and he received multiple lines of chemotherapy, including carfilzomib/dexamethasone. He was shifted to venetoclax/carfilzomib/dexamethasone in April 2019 and had an initial clinical response; two months later, he progressed to plasma cell leukemia with rapid deterioration to multiorgan failure.

Conclusions: Acquired t(11;14)(q13;q32) is unreported in the multiple myeloma literature. In the era of targeted therapy, it is essential to repeat the cytogenetic and multiple myeloma fluorescence in situ hybridization panel with each disease progression. Multiple myeloma remains a challenging hematological malignancy despite advances in personalized/precision medicine.

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