The Effect of Smoking on Clinical Presentation and Expression of TLR-2 and CD34 in Oral Lichen Planus Patients

Clinical and Immunohistochemical Study

Nermine Raouf Amin; Nermin Yussif; Enji Ahmed

Disclosures

BMC Oral Health. 2020;20(129) 

In This Article

Results

Clinical Presentation

The mean clinical and pain score values for the smoker LP group were (4.66 ± 0.02 &6.32 ± 0.13, respectively), while for the non-smoker LP group, they were (4.64 ± 0.04& 6.26 ± 0.55, respectively) showing no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p = 0.06&0.12, respectively).

Microscopic Examination of Immunostained Sections

TLR-2. Cytoplasmic TLR-2 immunoexpression was seen in basal and suprabasal cells of stratified squamous epithelium of the control group. (Figure 1a).

Figure 1.

Photomicrographs of TLR-2 immunoexpression in the epithelium of the a control group showing cytoplasmic reaction in the basal and suprabasal cells (TLR-2 × 400), b non-smoker LP group showing cytoplasmic and nuclear reaction in the basal and prickle cells (TLR-2 × 200), c smoker LP group showing obvious diffuse cytoplasmic reaction in all layers of stratified squamous epithelium (TLR-2 × 200). (LP): Lichen planus

Buccal mucosa of non-smoker LP group showed cytoplasmic TLR-2 immunoexpression in the basal and prickle cells, but not in the granular and surface layers. Nuclear expression is also detected. (Figure 1b). Buccal mucosa of smoker LP group revealed obvious diffuse cytoplasmic TLR-2 immunoexpression in all layers of stratified squamous epithelium. (Figure 1c).

Cd 34. Cytoplasmic CD 34 immunoexpression was seen in endothelial cells lining blood vessels in the connective tissue of all groups. In the control group (Figure 2a), blood vessels were few and small in size. In the non-smoker LP group (Figure 2b), more blood vessels were seen, appeared more elongated and were irregularly distributed. In smoker LP group (Figure 2c), blood vessels were numerous, most of them were rounded and were irregularly distributed.

Figure 2.

Photomicrographs of CD34immunostained sections in the mucosa of the a control group showing few blood vessels, b non-smoker LP group showing numerous and elongated blood vessels c smoker LP group showing numerous and rounded blood vessels. (CD34 × 400). (LP): Lichen planus

Statistical Analysis

ANOVA test revealed that the difference between the three groups for TLR-2 and CD34 immunoexpression was statistically significant (P < 0.05) (Table 1). Tukey post hock test for pairwise comparison between each two groups revealed that the mean area percent of TLR-2 and CD34 immunoexpression in the smoker LP group was significantly greater than the non-smoker LP group (P < 0.01) and the control group (P < 0.01). The non-smoker LP group was significantly greater than the control group (P < 0.01). (Table 1).

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