The Retina Revolution: Signaling Pathway Therapies, Genetic Therapies, Mitochondrial Therapies, Artificial Intelligence

Edward H. Wood; Edward Korot; Philip P. Storey; Stephanie Muscat; George A. Williams; Kimberly A. Drenser


Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2020;31(3):207-214. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Purpose of review: The aim of this article is to review and discuss the history, current state, and future implications of promising biomedical offerings in the field of retina.

Recent findings: The technologies discussed are some of the more recent promising biomedical developments within the field of retina. There is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved gene therapy product and artificial intelligence device for retina, with many other offerings in the pipeline.

Summary: Signaling pathway therapies, genetic therapies, mitochondrial therapies, and artificial intelligence have shaped retina care as we know it and are poised to further impact the future of retina care. Retina specialists have the privilege and responsibility of shaping this future for the visual health of current and future generations.


The field of retina is evolving at a breakneck pace. It is remarkable to acknowledge that life as a retina specialist exists primarily because of innovations conceptualized within the last 65 years. As opposed to representing a comprehensive review, the technologies described herein were selected to illuminate historical, current, and future biomedical progress. We specifically focus on therapies modulating signaling pathways, gene-based therapies, mitochondrial therapies, and artificial intelligence.