Critical Care Admissions Up for Pediatric Opioid Poisonings

Andrew D. Bowser

February 20, 2020

REPORTING FROM CCC49

ORLANDO – The proportion of children and adolescents admitted to critical care for serious poisonings has increased in recent years, according to authors of a study of more than 750,000 reported opioid exposures.

Critical care units were involved in 10% of pediatric opioid poisoning cases registered in 2015-2018, up from 7% in 2005-2009, reported Megan E. Land, MD, of Emory University, Atlanta, and coinvestigators.

Attempted suicide has represented an increasingly large proportion of pediatric opioid poisonings from 2005 to 2018, according to the researchers, based on retrospective analysis of cases reported to U.S. poison centers.

Mortality related to these pediatric poisonings increased over time, and among children and adolescents admitted to a pediatric ICU, CPR and naloxone use also increased over time, Dr. Land and associates noted.

These serious consequences of opioid ingestion by children and adolescents emphasize the need for strategies to address suicidality and reduce access to opioids, said Dr. Land, who presented the findings at the Critical Care Congress sponsored by the Society of Critical Care Medicine.

"I think that this really requires a two-pronged approach," she explained. "One is that we need to increase mental health resources for kids to address adolescent suicidality, and secondly, we need to decrease access to opioids in the hands of pediatric patients by decreasing prescribing and then also getting those that are unused out of the homes."

Jeffrey Zimmerman, MD, past president of SCCM, said these findings on pediatric opioid poisonings represent the "iceberg tip" of a much larger societal issue that has impacts well beyond critical care.

"I think acutely, we're well equipped to deal with the situation in terms of interventions," Dr. Zimmerman said in an interview. "The bigger issue is dealing with what happens afterward, when the patient leaves the ICU in the hospital."

When the issue is chronic opioid use among adolescents or children, critical care specialists can help by initiating opioid tapering in the hospital setting, rather than allowing the complete weaning process to play out at home, he said.

All clinicians can help prevent future injury by asking questions of the child and family to ensure that any opiates and other prescription medications at home are locked up, he added.

"These aren't very glamorous things, but they're common sense, and there's more need for this common sense now than there ever has been," Dr. Zimmerman concluded.

The study by Dr. Land and colleagues included data on primary opioid ingestions registered at 55 poison control centers in the United States. They assessed trends over three time periods: 2005-2009, 2010-2014, and 2015-2018.

They found that children under 19 years of age accounted for 28% of the 753,592 opioid poisonings reported over that time period.

The overall number of reported opioid poisonings among children declined somewhat since about 2010. However, the proportion admitted to a critical care unit increased from 7% in the 2005-2009 period to 10% in the 2015-2018 period, said Dr. Land, who added that the probability of a moderate or major effect increased by 0.55% and 0.11% per year, respectively, over the 14 years studied.

Mortality – 0.21% overall – increased from 0.18% in the earliest era to 0.28% in the most recent era, according to the investigators.

Suicidal intent increased from 14% in the earliest era to 21% in the most recent era, and was linked to near tenfold odds of undergoing a pediatric ICU procedure, Dr. Land and colleagues reported.

Among those children admitted to a pediatric ICU, use of CPR increased from 1% to 3% in the earliest and latest time periods, respectively; likewise, naloxone administration increased from 42% to 51% over those two time periods. By contrast, there was no change in use of mechanical ventilation (12%) or vasopressors (3%) over time, they added.

The opioids most commonly linked to pediatric ICU procedures were fentanyl (odds ratio, 12), heroin (OR, 11), and methadone (OR, 15).

Some funding for the study came from the Georgia Poison Center. Dr. Land had no disclosures relevant to the research.

SOURCE: Land M et al. Crit Care Med. 2020 doi: 10.1097/01.ccm.0000618708.38414.ea.

This story originally appeared on MDedge.com.

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