Update: Characteristics of a Nationwide Outbreak of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Product Use–Associated Lung Injury

United States, August 2019-January 2020

Vikram P. Krishnasamy, MD; Benjamin D. Hallowell, PhD; Jean Y. Ko, PhD; Amy Board, DrPH; Kathleen P. Hartnett, PhD; Phillip P. Salvatore, PhD; Melissa Danielson, MSPH; Aaron Kite-Powell, MS; Evelyn Twentyman, MD; Lindsay Kim, MD; Alissa Cyrus, MPH; Megan Wallace, DrPH; Paul Melstrom, PharmD, PhD; Brittani Haag, MS; Brian A. King, PhD; Peter Briss, MD; Christopher M. Jones, PharmD, DrPH; Lori A. Pollack, MD; Sascha Ellington, PhD

Disclosures

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2020;69(3):90-94. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Introduction

Since August 2019, CDC, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), state and local health departments, and public health and clinical stakeholders have been investigating a nationwide outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI).[1] This report updates patient demographic characteristics, self-reported substance use, and hospitalization dates for EVALI patients reported to CDC by states, as well as the distribution of emergency department (ED) visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products analyzed through the National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP). As of January 14, 2020, a total of 2,668 hospitalized EVALI cases had been reported to CDC. Median patient age was 24 years, and 66% were male. Overall, 82% of EVALI patients reported using any tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, product (including 33% with exclusive THC-containing product use), and 57% of EVALI patients reported using any nicotine-containing product (including 14% with exclusive nicotine-containing product use). Syndromic surveillance indicates that ED visits related to e-cigarette, or vaping, products continue to decline after sharply increasing in August 2019 and peaking in September 2019. Clinicians and public health practitioners should remain vigilant for new EVALI cases. CDC recommends that persons not use THC-containing e-cigarette, or vaping, products, especially those acquired from informal sources such as friends, family members, or from in-person or online dealers. Vitamin E acetate is strongly linked to the EVALI outbreak and should not be added to any e-cigarette, or vaping, products.[2] However, evidence is not sufficient to rule out the contribution of other chemicals of concern, including chemicals in either THC- or non-THC–containing products, in some reported EVALI cases.

States and jurisdictions voluntarily report data on confirmed and probable hospitalized or deceased EVALI patients to CDC weekly using established case definitions* and data collection tools.[1] Self-reported substances used in e-cigarette, or vaping, products were assessed among EVALI patients, including the percentage reporting any or exclusive THC-containing product use, any or exclusive nicotine-containing product use, and use of both THC- and nicotine-containing products. To assess trends in possible EVALI-related ED visits, CDC and health departments developed a query to assess exposure to e-cigarette, or vaping, products as a reason for an ED visit§.[3,4]

As of January 14, 2020, all 50 states, the District of Columbia, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico had reported 2,668 hospitalized EVALI patients (Table). Overall, 66% of patients were male. The median patient age was 24 years (range = 13–85 years), and 76% were aged <35 years. Most EVALI patients were non-Hispanic white (73%), and 15% were Hispanic. Among 2,022 hospitalized patients with information on substances used, 1,650 (82%) reported using any THC-containing product, and 1,162 (57%) reported using any nicotine-containing product; 669 (33%) reported exclusive THC-containing product use, and 274 (14%) reported exclusive nicotine-containing product use.

The weekly number of hospital admissions for EVALI reported to CDC peaked at 215 during the week of September 15, 2019 (Figure 1). Since then, the number of cases reported each week has continued to steadily decline. NSSP data show that the number of possible EVALI-related ED visits sharply increased during August 11–September 8, 2019, by a mean of 26 visits per million each week (95% confidence interval [CI] = 18–33) (Figure 2). The weekly visit rate peaked at 116 per million during the week of September 8, 2019, then decreased by an average of approximately four per million weekly visits (95% CI = 4–5) to 35 per million during the week of January 5, 2020. This remains higher than the rate of 23 per million ED visits during the week of August 18, 2019.

Figure 1.

Number of patients (N = 2,398) with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (EVALI) by week of hospital admission — United States, February 10, 2019–January 14, 2020

Figure 2.

Emergency department (ED) visits with e-cigarette, or vaping, product use in the reason for visit (chief complaint)* — National Syndromic Surveillance Program, United States, January 1, 2017–January 11, 2020
*Excludes injuries unrelated to e-cigarette, or vaping, product use–associated lung injury (e.g., device explosions and accidental ingestion of e-liquid) but does not exclude potentially related syndromes such as acute intoxication from tetrahydrocannabinol or nicotine poisoning.

*https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/assets/2019-Lung-Injury-Surveillance-Case-Definition-508.pdf.
https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/severe-lung-disease/healthcare-providers/pdfs/National-Case-Report-Form-v01.pdf.
§NSSP records free-text comments about the reason for ED visit, discharge diagnosis codes, and patient demographic characteristics from approximately 70% of ED visits nationwide.

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