Lifetime Estrogen Exposure and Cognition in Late Life

The Cache County Study

Joshua M. Matyi, MS; Gail B. Rattinger, PharmD, PhD; Sarah Schwartz, PhD; Mona Buhusi, MD, PhD; JoAnn T. Tschanz, PhD


Menopause. 2019;26(12):1366-1374. 

In This Article


In conclusion, longer duration of endogenous estrogen is associated with better cognitive status in older adult women. These effects are extended with HT use, particularly among the oldest women in our sample. In addition, women who initiated HT earlier showed higher cognitive test scores than those who initiated HT later, providing some support for the critical window hypothesis of HT. Future research might investigate factors known to disrupt endogenous estrogen (eg, cancer) or may target the initiation of HT in late-life, comparing health-related factors between participants to help elucidate the effects of HT on late-life cognition.