A 50-Year Review of Lapides' Clean Intermittent Catheterization

A Revolutionary, Life-Saving, Quality-of-Life Improving Technique for Bladder Management

Ananias C. Diokno


Urol Nurs. 2019;39(5):229-234. 

In This Article

Longevity of the Clean Intermittent Self-catheterization Program

At its onset, there was great fear that CIC might be harmful because the unsterile technique could lead to more infections, indiscriminate catheterization could lead to urethral trauma and development of urethral strictures, and chronic catheterization could lead to bladder cancers. To date, there has not been any report of increased incidence of bladder cancer, and the use of CIC has been embraced globally. There were reports of CIC failures and development of urethral strictures (Morey, 2017) and bladder stones (Solomon, Koff, & Diokno, 1980). However, these reports are dwarfed by the innumerable reports of the benefits of CIC from around the world, prolonging life expectancy and improving quality of life. We believe the place of CIC in the management of many bladder dysfunctions is already well-established, and it will continue to not only to save lives, but improve quality of life as well (Diokno, Sonda, Hollander, & Lapides, 1983; Lamin & Newman, 2016).