Sex Differences in Long-Term Quality of Life Among Survivors After Stroke in the INSTRUCT

Hoang T. Phan, PhD; Christopher L. Blizzard, PhD; Mathew J. Reeves, PhD; Amanda G. Thrift, PhD; Dominique A. Cadilhac, PhD; Jonathan Sturm, PhD; Emma Heeley, PhD; Petr Otahal, GDipSc; Peter Rothwell, PhD; Craig S. Anderson, PhD; Priya Parmar, PhD; Rita Krishnamurthi, PhD; Suzanne Barker-Collo, PhD; Valery Feigin, PhD; Seana Gall, PhD


Stroke. 2019;50(9):2299-2306. 

In This Article


Women generally have poorer long-term HRQoL after stroke in several dimensions of physical and mental health. The sex differences were partly explained by women's advanced age, prestroke function, and stroke severity with some evidence that poststroke depression was also important. Targeting potentially modifiable factors including stroke severity and mood disorders will provide more opportunities to reduce the sex differences in stroke outcomes. Men and women with stroke, compared to the general population, have reasonably similar loss of HRQoL. Therefore, strategies to improve HRQoL following stroke should be focused on all stroke survivors.