Severe Silicosis in Engineered Stone Fabrication Workers

California, Colorado, Texas, and Washington, 2017-2019

Cecile Rose, MD; Amy Heinzerling, MD; Ketki Patel, MD, PhD; Coralynn Sack, MD; Jenna Wolff; Lauren Zell-Baran, MPH; David Weissman, MD; Emily Hall, MPH; Robbie Sooriash, MD; Ronda B. McCarthy, MD; Heidi Bojes, PhD; Brian Korotzer, MD; Jennifer Flattery, MPH; Justine Lew Weinberg, MSEHS; Joshua Potocko, MD; Kirk D. Jones, MD; Carolyn K. Reeb-Whitaker, MS; Nicholas K. Reul, MD; Claire R. LaSee, MPH, MSW; Barbara L. Materna, PhD; Ganesh Raghu, MD; Robert Harrison, MD


Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2019;68(38):813-818. 

In This Article


Although silicosis outbreaks have been reported among engineered stone fabrication workers in other countries,[2–5] only one such case has been reported previously in the United States.[7] This report describes 18 additional cases of silicosis, including two fatalities, occurring in four states among mainly Hispanic stone fabrication workers who worked principally with engineered stone materials. As reported in other countries, most of the workers in this series (11 of 18) were aged <50 years, with severe, progressive disease. Engineered stone contains substantially more silica than does natural stone (>90%, compared with <45% in granite),[6] exposing workers to higher amounts of silica dust. In recent years, engineered stone countertops have become increasingly popular; quartz surface imports to the United States increased approximately 800% during 2010–2018.

In addition to silicosis, two patients had latent tuberculosis infection, and five had concurrent autoimmune disease; autoimmune disease has also been documented among workers in this industry in other countries.[8] Silicosis was not suspected in several patients with autoimmune disease until they underwent lung biopsy, underscoring the importance of taking an occupational history in patients with autoimmune diseases to improve recognition of workplace silica exposure.

Silicosis is preventable through effective workplace exposure controls; in the stone fabrication industry, this can include tools equipped with water feeds and well-designed local exhaust ventilation, and, when needed, appropriate respiratory protection.** Updated occupational silica standards, with more stringent requirements for exposure prevention and monitoring, medical surveillance, and a lower respirable crystalline silica PEL of 0.05 mg/m3, have been implemented since 2016 at the federal and state levels.††

Despite availability of exposure controls and recent passage of more stringent silica standards, exposure control and medical surveillance for silicosis in the stone fabrication industry remain challenging. As of 2018, there were an estimated 8,694 establishments and 96,366 employees in the stone fabrication industry in the United States.§§ Many stone fabrication shops are small-scale operations that might face safety challenges, including limited awareness, expertise, and investment in exposure-control technologies, that can result in inadequate worker protection. In addition, many employees in this industry are Hispanic immigrants, who might be especially vulnerable to workplace health hazards because they might have fewer employment options and diminished access to medical care and face threat of retaliation if they report workplace hazards or file workers' compensation claims.[9] As a result, these workers might not seek medical attention until symptoms are severe and disease is advanced.

The findings in this report are subject to at least two limitations. First, requirements for employee medical screening under the silica standard have only recently been established in most jurisdictions; many at-risk employees likely have not been screened for silicosis. Second, public health surveillance for silicosis varies across jurisdictions; the cases described in this report were identified through record review from an individual clinical practice (Colorado), state-based respiratory disease surveillance using workers' compensation (Washington) or hospital discharge data (California), and employer or health care provider reports to a public health agency (Texas). Without systematic screening and surveillance of all at-risk workers, prevalence of silicosis and its associated conditions in stone fabrication workers in the United States remains unknown.

Given mounting evidence of silicosis risk among stone fabrication workers, the government of Queensland, Australia, initiated screening in 2018 for all at-risk employees. Ninety-eight cases of silicosis have been identified among 799 workers (12%) examined.[10] These findings suggest that there might be many more U.S. cases that have yet to be identified.

Silicosis is preventable; the cases reported here highlight the urgent need to identify stone fabrication workers at risk and prevent further excess exposure to silica dust. Stone fabrication employers should be aware of this serious risk to their employees' health and ensure that they adequately monitor and control exposures in compliance with the updated silica standards. To identify silicosis among already-exposed workers, employers should conduct required medical surveillance, and both employers and health care providers should notify appropriate public health agencies when cases are identified. State health departments and CDC can work together to standardize and improve public health surveillance for silicosis across jurisdictions. Effective disease surveillance and regulatory enforcement are crucial to address the emerging silicosis threat in the stone fabrication industry.
** Additional information regarding controlling silica dust exposures is available at and at
†† These standards are promulgated and enforced by either state agencies (as in California and Washington), or the federal Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The relevant regulations are: 29 Code of Federal Regulations, Section 1910.1053 (Respirable Crystalline Silica); Title 8 California Code of Regulations, Sections 5155 (Airborne Contaminants), 1532.3 (Occupational Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica – Construction), and 5204 (Occupational Exposures to Respirable Crystalline Silica – General Industry); Washington Administrative Code Chapter 296–840 (Respirable Crystalline Silica).
§§ Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics quarterly census of employment and wages ( for North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) industry code 327911 (Cut Stone and Stone Product Manufacturing) and NAICS code 423320 (Masonry Material Merchant Wholesalers). At time of access, data for 2018 were preliminary.