Focused Cardiac Ultrasound in the Pediatric Perioperative Setting

Karen R. Boretsky, MD; David B. Kantor, MD, PhD; James A. DiNardo, MD; Achikam Oren-Grinberg, MD


Anesth Analg. 2019;129(4):925-932. 

In This Article

Limitations of the FoCUS Examination

Several limitations of the FoCUS examination need to be recognized. The FoCUS examination may not be able to provide information to direct all clinical situations. For instance, (1) intraoperative access to the patient and patient's position may limit quality imaging, (2) obese patients, very small patients, and patients with contractures and rib cage deformities can be challenging to image, (3) interpretation of FoCUS examinations in patients with complex CHD is limited and should be approached with caution, and (4) lack of adequate training in indications, image acquisition, and interpretation is limiting integration of FoCUS into pediatric anesthesia practice.