Risk Factors and Clinical Characteristics of Lung Cancer in Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

A Retrospective Cohort Study

Hongseok Yoo; Byeong-Ho Jeong; Myung Jin Chung; Kyung Soo Lee; O. Jung Kwon; Man Pyo Chung


BMC Pulm Med. 2019;19(149) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction


Background: Lung cancer is a common comorbidity of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and has poor outcomes. The incidence and clinical factors related to development of lung cancer in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) are unclear. The aim of this study was to elucidate the cumulative incidence, risk factors, and clinical characteristics of lung cancer in IPF.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed clinical data for 938 patients who were diagnosed with IPF without lung cancer between 1998 and 2013. Demographic, physiologic, radiographic, and histologic characteristics were reviewed. Cumulative incidence of lung cancer and survival were estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Risk factors of lung cancer development were determined by Cox proportional hazard analysis.

Results: Among 938 IPF patients without lung cancer at initial diagnosis, lung cancer developed in 135 (14.5%) during the follow-up period. The cumulative incidences of lung cancer were 1.1% at 1 year, 8.7% at 3, 15.9% at 5, and 31.1% at 10 years. Risk factors of lung cancer were male gender, current smoking at IPF diagnosis, and rapid annual decline of 10% or more in forced vital capacity (FVC). Patients who developed lung cancer were mostly elderly men with smoking history. Squamous cell carcinoma followed by adenocarcinoma was the most common histologic type. Lung cancer was frequently located in areas abutting or within fibrosis. Survival was significantly worse in patients with lung cancer compared to patients with IPF alone.

Conclusion: Lung cancer frequently developed in patients with IPF and was common in current-smoking men with rapid decline of FVC.