Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: Pathophysiology, Presentation, and Treatment With Emphasis on Adolescent Girls

Selma Feldman Witchel; Sharon E. Oberfield; Alexia S. Peña

Disclosures

J Endo Soc. 2019;3(8):1545-1573. 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. Depending on diagnostic criteria, 6% to 20% of reproductive aged women are affected. Symptoms of PCOS arise during the early pubertal years. Both normal female pubertal development and PCOS are characterized by irregular menstrual cycles, anovulation, and acne. Owing to the complicated interwoven pathophysiology, discerning the inciting causes is challenging. Most available clinical data communicate findings and outcomes in adult women. Whereas the Rotterdam criteria are accepted for adult women, different diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescent girls have been delineated. Diagnostic features for adolescent girls are menstrual irregularity, clinical hyperandrogenism, and/or hyperandrogenemia. Pelvic ultrasound findings are not needed for the diagnosis of PCOS in adolescent girls. Even before definitive diagnosis of PCOS, adolescents with clinical signs of androgen excess and oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea, features of PCOS, can be regarded as being "at risk for PCOS." Management of both those at risk for PCOS and those with a confirmed PCOS diagnosis includes education, healthy lifestyle interventions, and therapeutic interventions targeting their symptoms. Interventions can include metformin, combined oral contraceptive pills, spironolactone, and local treatments for hirsutism and acne. In addition to ascertaining for associated comorbidities, management should also include regular follow-up visits and planned transition to adult care providers. Comprehensive knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of PCOS will enable earlier identification of girls with high propensity to develop PCOS. Timely implementation of individualized therapeutic interventions will improve overall management of PCOS during adolescence, prevent associated comorbidities, and improve quality of life.

Introduction

The female hypothalamic–pituitary–ovarian (HPO) axis is a meticulously synchronized and tightly regulated network ultimately responsible for reproductive competence and survival of the species. The HPO axis responds to internal signals (i.e., hormonal and neuronal) and external factors (i.e., environment influences). Beginning during gestation, these factors impact future generations through epigenetic factors affecting the brain and the developing germ cells.[1]

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a disorder primarily characterized by signs and symptoms of androgen excess and ovulatory dysfunction, disrupts HPO axis function. Depending on diagnostic criteria, this disorder affects ~6% to 20% of reproductive aged women.[2,3] Typical clinical features include hirsutism, irregular menses, chronic anovulation, and infertility. The persistent hyperandrogenism is associated with impaired hypothalamic–pituitary feedback, LH hypersecretion, premature granulosa cell luteinization, aberrant oocyte maturation, and premature arrest of activated primary follicles.[4]

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