Ketogenic Diet for Schizophrenia: Clinical Implication

Zoltán Sarnyai; Ann-Katrin Kraeuter; Christopher M. Palmer


Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2019;32(5):394-401. 

In This Article

Normal Glucose Metabolism is Essential for Brain Function

Normal synaptic communication requires appropriate formation of dendritic spines and the synthesis, release and recycling of neurotransmitters. Constantly forming and remodelling spines and maintaining neurotransmission is energetically expensive.[10] Glucose is the main energy substrate for the brain.[11] From glucose, the high-energy molecule ATP is produced through glycolysis in the cytoplasm and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria.[11] Reversing the ion movements that generate postsynaptic responses consumes the majority of the energy used from ATP.[12] Glucose is not only the major substrate for ATP but glucose metabolism also results in production of glutamate and subsequently GABA.[11] Therefore, deficits in glucose and synaptic energy supply lead to impaired synaptic communication and can ultimately result in abnormal brain function and behaviour.[13]