Tooth Wear in Patients Treated With HIV Anti-retroviral Therapy

Harjit Singh Sehgal; Richie Kohli; Edward Pham; Grace E. Beck; Jay R. Anderson

Disclosures

BMC Oral Health. 2019;19(129) 

In This Article

Abstract and Introduction

Abstract

Background: The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationship between HIV anti-retroviral therapy and tooth wear.

Methods: Assessment of tooth wear was conducted both with a survey questionnaire and clinical assessment at Russell Street Dental Clinic in Portland, Oregon. The survey questionnaire comprised of questions on study participant's gender, age, HIV status, current medications, awareness of tooth grinding or clenching, jaw soreness, tooth or gum soreness, and frequency of headaches. For the clinical evaluation, a dental provider recorded the degree of wear on each tooth using a scale of 0–3. An individual tooth-wear index was used to rank patients with regard to incisal and occlusal wear. Data analysis included descriptive analysis, tests of association and regression analysis using SPSS V.24.

Results: The study sample involved 93 patients (HIV + ve = 60, HIV–ve = 33) with age range of 20–90 yrs. (mean = 49 yrs., s.d = 13.3). 92 and 67% participants of the HIV + ve and HIV-ve groups, respectively, presented with tooth wear. The mean tooth wear index was higher in HIV + ve patients than HIV–ve patients (8.2 vs. 7.8), however, this difference was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). A significant, positive correlation was found between HIV presence and tooth wear index, after accounting for age (B = 0.71, p < 0.05). The number of years on anti-retroviral therapy alone was positively correlated with tooth wear index (R2 = 0.116, p < 0.05). After controlling for age, years of anti-retroviral therapy use was positively correlated with tooth wear index (B = 0.047, p > 0.05).

Conclusions: The findings from this study suggest that HIV + ve patients, who are on anti-retroviral therapy have significant tooth wear, although more studies with larger sample size are needed to confirm this. There is a critical need to initiate a dialogue with medical providers about tooth wear as a possible side effect of antiretroviral therapy and to introduce appropriate preventive measures.

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