Efficacy of Local Anesthesia in the Face and Scalp

A Prospective Trial

Tyler Safran, MD; Dino Zammit, MD; Jonathan Kanevsky, MD, FRCSC; Manish Khanna, MD, FRCPC


Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open. 2019;7(5):e2243 

In This Article


In conclusion, the effectiveness of local anesthesia is determined by a wide array of specific anatomical considerations. This article was successful in showing, through a prospective trial, that for the same local anesthetic and concentration, upper forehead and scalp lesions take significantly longer to anesthetize than other lesions in the lower face and ear. This phenomenon is hypothesized to be due to the deeper nerve route in the upper face and scalp, increased vascularity for absorption of the anesthesia, and decreased concentration of mechanoreceptors moving cranially in the head and neck regions. This study will prove useful for surgeons who have office-based surgical procedures to help improve flow and patient outcomes.